Extending WebAssembly to the Cloud with .NET

Richard Lander

WebAssembly (Wasm) is an exciting new(ish) virtual machine and (assembly) instruction format. Wasm was born in the browser and is an important part of the Blazor project. The second act for Wasm is cloud computing, for apps and functions. WebAssembly System Interface (WASI) is the new enabler, providing a way for WebAssembly code to call and implement arbitrary APIs, safely and across languages. It is now possible to create WASI apps with .NET using the wasi-experimental workload in .NET 8. We’re exploring these new technologies and running .NET apps in this environment …. really, anywhere.

This post will help you understand the broadening use of Wasm and describe what’s already possible with .NET. They say that history doesn’t repeat itself, but that it rhymes. We’re back for another round of “write once, run anywhere”. WASI apps are portable binaries that run on any hardware or operating system and are not specific to any programming language. This time, it feels different. It’s not just vendor neural; it’s everything neutral.

Wasm and WASI

Wasm may be offering us a reboot of compute in the cloud, with the promise of a single cloud-native binary, higher density, and cheaper multi-tenancy. It also opens up the possibility of edge compute for the same reasons. In fact, CloudFlare and Fastly already host public compute at the edge with Wasm.

Wasm is different than running an app in a Linux container, which is a (good and clever) re-packaging of existing standards and code. Wasm is more like running an app in an environment with no operating system, with just assembly code, memory, and standardized (and gated) access to the outside world (via WASI).

The Hyperlight presentation at Build 2023 (4m video) provides insight into what a Wasm-enabled cloud might look like. It demonstrates a Blazor app running in a new lighweight and secure hypervisor. Hyperlight sparks the imagination on new hosting paradigms.

WebAssembly System Interface (WASI), WebAssembly Interface Types (WIT), and WebAssembly Component Model are the key specs in this latest round of Wasm innovation. They are very much still in the design phase and undergoing significant change. This post (and the .NET 8 implementation) is oriented around WASI Preview 1. We expect the .NET 9 implementation to use WASI Preview 2.

WIT and wit-bindgen enable components written in any source language to communicate and with the host system. Implementation of WIT support for C# is lead by @silesmo. Wasm and WIT together define the Application Binary Interface (ABI).

We expect WASI to become a standard set of WIT types that provide access to low-level functionality (like getting the time and reading a file). These low-level types effectively form a “Wasm standard library” across programming languages and operating systems. We’re never had standard and shared functionality that Rust devs and .NET devs, for example, could both use. There isn’t any widely-deployed historical precedent of native code that exposed APIs with OO-ish shape (like interfaces) that could be used across programming languages and operating systems.

The standard WIT types start with wasi- and define the “platform”. You can think of them in a similar way to the System namespace in .NET (matching the ‘S’ in WASI). Continuing the analogy, you can create your own .NET namespaces beyond the System ones, and the same is true with WIT.

These posts do a great job of framing WASI in more detail.

The promise on the horizon is being able to take an existing .NET app or library and compile it to a Wasm target. Our design instinct is to implement WIT interfaces relatively high into the .NET stack (like create an ADO.NET Data Provider for wasi-sql), which would enable existing code (including many existing NuGet packages) to just work, particularly for code without native dependencies.

Wasm apps are run in a Wasm runtime, like wasmtime. Much like Docker, you can configure that runtime with specific capabilities. For example, if you want Wasm code to have access to a key/value store, you can expose a key/value interface to it, which could be backed by a local database or a cloud service.

Wasm runtimes are intended to be embeddable within apps. In fact, there is a wasmtime package for hosting Wasm in .NET apps. .NET code can run as Wasm, but .NET apps can host wasmtime?!? Yes, this space can start to seem circular. While these scenarios seem circular, they might end up being pretty useful, vaguely similar to how AppDomains have been used. It’s also reminiscent of all the “docker in docker” scenarios.

We expect a lot more innovation, more Wasm runtimes, and more industry participants. In fact, Wasm has gradulated to a W3C spec. The W3C is a perfect home for Wasm, to let it grow as a broad industry spec, just like HTML and XML before it.

wasi-experimental workload

.NET 8 includes a new workload called wasi-experimental. It builds on top of the Wasm functionality used by Blazor, extending it to run in wasmtime and invoke WASI interfaces. It is far from done, but already enables useful functionality.

Let’s move on from theory to demonstrating the new capabilities.

After installing the .NET 8 SDK, you can install the wasi-experimental workload.

dotnet workload install wasi-experimental

Note: This command may require admin permisions, for example with sudo on Linux and macOS.

You also need to install wasmtime to run the Wasm code you are soon going to produce.

Try a simple example with the wasi-console template.

$ dotnet new wasiconsole -o wasiconsole
$ cd wasiconsole
$ cat Program.cs 
using System;

Console.WriteLine("Hello, WASI Console!");
$ dotnet run
WasmAppHost --runtime-config /Users/rich/wasiconsole/bin/Debug/net8.0/wasi-wasm/AppBundle/wasiconsole.runtimeconfig.json
Running: wasmtime run --dir . -- dotnet.wasm wasiconsole
Using working directory: /Users/rich/wasiconsole/bin/Debug/net8.0/wasi-wasm/AppBundle
Hello, WASI Console!

The app was run using wasmtime. There is no x64 or Arm64 here, just Wasm.

dotnet run is providing extra information (in the console output) to help explain what is going on. That will likely change in future. All of the interaction with the host system is managed by wasmtime.

We can look a bit deeper at the AppBundle directory.

$ ls -l bin/Release/net8.0/wasi-wasm/AppBundle
total 24872
-rwxr--r--  1 rich  staff  11191074 Oct 31 07:53 dotnet.wasm
-rwxr--r--  1 rich  staff   1526128 Oct 11 14:00 icudt.dat
drwxr-xr-x  6 rich  staff       192 Nov 19 19:35 managed
-rwxr-xr-x  1 rich  staff        48 Nov 19 19:35 run-wasmtime.sh
-rw-r--r--  1 rich  staff       915 Nov 19 19:35 runtimeconfig.bin
drwxr-xr-x  2 rich  staff        64 Nov 19 19:35 tmp
-rw-r--r--  1 rich  staff      1457 Nov 19 19:35 wasiconsole.runtimeconfig.json
$ ls -l bin/Release/net8.0/wasi-wasm/AppBundle/managed 
total 3432
-rw-r--r--  1 rich  staff    27136 Nov 19 19:35 System.Console.dll
-rw-r--r--  1 rich  staff  1711616 Nov 19 19:35 System.Private.CoreLib.dll
-rw-r--r--  1 rich  staff     5632 Nov 19 19:35 System.Runtime.dll
-rw-r--r--  1 rich  staff     5120 Nov 19 19:35 wasiconsole.dll

The SDK published the app into a self-contained deployment. The .NET runtime — dotnet.wasm — has already been compiled to Wasm (on our build machines). The app and dotnet.wasm are loaded together in wasmtime, which runs all the code. The actual managed code of the app — in the managed directory — is interpreted at runtime, just like with Blazor WebAssembly. @yowl and @SingleAccretion community members have been experimenting with Wasm and native AOT.

You might be wondering why we need all these files to be separate, when the obviously better option is to have one wasiconsole.wasm file. We can do that, too, but it is covered a little later in the post, since we need to install a bit more software on the machine (that doesn’t currently come with the wasi-experimental workload).

What does RuntimeInformation tell us?

RuntimeInformation is one of my favorite types. It gives us a better sense of the target environment.

We can change the sample a tiny bit to show some more useful information.

using System;
using System.Runtime.InteropServices;

Console.WriteLine($"Hello {RuntimeInformation.OSDescription}:{RuntimeInformation.OSArchitecture}");
Console.WriteLine($"With love from {RuntimeInformation.FrameworkDescription}");

It produces this output.

Hello WASI:Wasm
With love from .NET 8.0.0

The first line is interesting. The operating system is WASI and the architecture is Wasm. That makes sense, with a little more context. There is a mention earlier in the post that Wasm can be thought as “no operating system”, however, we cannot simply call it Wasm since the existing browser and WASI environments are quite different. As a result, the only coherent name for this environment is WASI, while Wasm is unambigiously the “chip architecture”.

Wasm is a 32-bit compute environment, which means that 2^32 bytes are addressable. However, a Wasm runtime can be configured to use memory64, enabling access to >4GB of memory. We don’t have support for that yet.

Accessing the host file system

Wasmtime (and other Wasm runtimes) provide the option to map a host directory to a guest directory. This is similar to volume mounting with Docker from a user standpoint, however, the implementation details are different.

Let’s look at a simple app that depends of directory mounting. It converts markdown to HTML using the Markdig package. It’s fair to say that Markdig wasn’t written to run as Wasm. Markdig is happy as long as a cozy managed environment can be created for it and that’s what we’ve done.

Let’s try on a Mac M1 (Arm64) machine.

$ pwd
/Users/rich/git/wasm-samples/tomarkup
$ dotnet publish
$ cd bin/Release/net8.0/wasi-wasm/AppBundle 
$ cat run-wasmtime.sh
wasmtime run --dir . dotnet.wasm tomarkup $*
$ ./run-wasmtime.sh 
A valid inputfile must be provided.
$  wasmtime run --dir . --mapdir /markdown::/Users/rich/markdown --mapdir /tmp::/Users/rich dotnet.wasm tomarkup $* /markdown/README.md /tmp/README.html
$ ls ~/*.html
/Users/rich/README.html
$ cat ~/markdown/README.md | head -n 3  
# .NET Runtime

[![Build Status](https://dev.azure.com/dnceng-public/public/_apis/build/status/dotnet/runtime/runtime?branchName=main)](https://dev.azure.com/dnceng-public/public/_build/latest?definitionId=129&branchName=main)
$ cat ~/README.html | head -n 3       
<h1>.NET Runtime</h1>
<p><a href="https://dev.azure.com/dnceng-public/public/_build/latest?definitionId=129&amp;branchName=main"><img src="https://dev.azure.com/dnceng-public/public/_apis/build/status/dotnet/runtime/runtime?branchName=main" alt="Build Status" /></a>
<a href="https://github.com/dotnet/runtime/labels/help%20wanted"><img src="https://img.shields.io/github/issues/dotnet/runtime/help%20wanted?style=flat-square&amp;color=%232EA043&amp;label=help%20wanted" alt="Help Wanted" /></a>

--mapdir is mounting the directories, from host to guest.

As you can see, a markdown file has been converted to HTML. The first three lines of each file have been shown for brevity.

The CLI gestures required for directory mounting are currently a bit inconvenient. That’s something we’ll need to look at in a future release. It’s a really a question of how dotnet run and wasmtime run should relate.

But can it word count?

I recently published The Convenience of System.IO, which focused on word counting. Can we get the same code to run as Wasm and see how fast it runs?

The word counting benchmarks in that post were run on Linux x64. Let’s keep that the same, but run as Wasm this time.

$ pwd
/Users/rich/git/convenience/wordcount/count
$ grep asm count.csproj 
    <RuntimeIdentifier>wasi-wasm</RuntimeIdentifier>
    <WasmSingleFileBundle>true</WasmSingleFileBundle>
$ dotnet publish
$ cd bin/Release/net8.0/wasi-wasm/AppBundle/
$ WASMTIME_NEW_CLI=0 wasmtime run --mapdir /text::/home/rich/git/convenience/wordcount count.wasm $* /text/Clarissa_Harlowe
    11716  110023  610515 /text/Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume1.txt
    12124  110407  610557 /text/Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume2.txt
    11961  109622  606948 /text/Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume3.txt
    12168  111908  625888 /text/Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume4.txt
    12626  108593  614062 /text/Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume5.txt
    12434  107576  607619 /text/Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume6.txt
    12818  112713  628322 /text/Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume7.txt
    12331  109785  611792 /text/Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume8.txt
    11771  104934  598265 /text/Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume9.txt
        9     153    1044 /text/Clarissa_Harlowe/summary.md
   109958  985714  5515012 total

I updated the project file to include <RuntimeIdentifier>wasi-wasm</RuntimeIdentifier> and <WasmSingleFileBundle>true</WasmSingleFileBundle> and commented out the PublishAot related properties. I also added a runtimeconfig.template.json file. No changes were made to the app code.

We now have the whole app in a single file bundle.

$ ls -l bin/Release/net8.0/wasi-wasm/AppBundle/
total 6684
-rw-r--r-- 1 rich rich    1397 Nov 19 19:59 count.runtimeconfig.json
-rwxr-xr-x 1 rich rich 6827282 Nov 19 19:59 count.wasm
-rw-r--r-- 1 rich rich     915 Nov 19 19:59 runtimeconfig.bin
-rwxr-xr-x 1 rich rich      27 Nov 19 19:59 run-wasmtime.sh
drwxr-xr-x 2 rich rich    4096 Nov 19 19:59 tmp

That looks better. The app is just shy of 7MB. I had to install the WASI-SDK to use the WasmSingleFileBundle property and set an environment variable to enable dotnet publish to find the required tools.

$ echo $WASI_SDK_PATH
/home/rich/wasi-sdk/wasi-sdk-20.0/

There was a recent breaking change in wasmtime. I chose to use WASMTIME_NEW_CLI=0 to get back to the old behavior for running the sample.

Let’s get back to performance. First, run as wasm (executing managed code via an interpreter):

$ time WASMTIME_NEW_CLI=0 wasmtime run --mapdir /text::/home/rich/git/convenience/wordcount count.wasm $* /text/Clarissa_Harlowe
    11716  110023  610515 /text/Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume1.txt
    12124  110407  610557 /text/Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume2.txt
    11961  109622  606948 /text/Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume3.txt
    12168  111908  625888 /text/Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume4.txt
    12626  108593  614062 /text/Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume5.txt
    12434  107576  607619 /text/Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume6.txt
    12818  112713  628322 /text/Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume7.txt
    12331  109785  611792 /text/Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume8.txt
    11771  104934  598265 /text/Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume9.txt
        9     153    1044 /text/Clarissa_Harlowe/summary.md
   109958  985714  5515012 total
Elapsed time (ms): 821
Elapsed time (us): 821223.8

real    0m0.897s
user    0m0.846s
sys 0m0.030s

Now with our (even more) experimental native AOT support for Wasm.

$ time WASMTIME_NEW_CLI=0 wasmtime run --mapdir /text::/home/rich/git/convenience/wordcount count.wasm $* /text/Clarissa_Harlowe
    11716  110023  610515 /text/Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume1.txt
    12124  110407  610557 /text/Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume2.txt
    11961  109622  606948 /text/Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume3.txt
    12168  111908  625888 /text/Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume4.txt
    12626  108593  614062 /text/Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume5.txt
    12434  107576  607619 /text/Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume6.txt
    12818  112713  628322 /text/Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume7.txt
    12331  109785  611792 /text/Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume8.txt
    11771  104934  598265 /text/Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume9.txt
        9     153    1044 /text/Clarissa_Harlowe/summary.md
   109958  985714  5515012 total
Elapsed time (ms): 60
Elapsed time (us): 60322.2

real    0m0.107s
user    0m0.064s
sys 0m0.045s

Now, run with CoreCLR on Linux x64:

$ time ./app/count ../Clarissa_Harlowe/
    11716  110023  610515 ../Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume1.txt
    12124  110407  610557 ../Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume2.txt
    11961  109622  606948 ../Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume3.txt
    12168  111908  625888 ../Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume4.txt
    12626  108593  614062 ../Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume5.txt
    12434  107576  607619 ../Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume6.txt
    12818  112713  628322 ../Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume7.txt
    12331  109785  611792 ../Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume8.txt
    11771  104934  598265 ../Clarissa_Harlowe/clarissa_volume9.txt
        9     153    1044 ../Clarissa_Harlowe/summary.md
   109958  985714  5515012 total
Elapsed time (ms): 77
Elapsed time (us): 77252.9

real    0m0.128s
user    0m0.096s
sys 0m0.014s

Those are interesting results. We’ve got interpretation, AOT, and JIT code generation approaches to compare. The Wasm intepreter is able to count (just shy of) one million words in just under one second while AOT-compiled Wasm and the JIT runtime can do the same around 100 milliseconds.

performance chart comparing wasm, AOT, and JIT implementations

Note: Main method is the time to run main, as measured by StopWatch. Process is the complete process duration, as measured by time.

This chart shows all of the results in context, including those in the The convenience of System.IO post.

wasmtime JIT compiles the Wasm code to the target environment (in this case to Linux+x64). It’s possible to AOT the Wasm code, using wamr, for example. I’ll leave that for another post.

Light-weight functions

Hmmm … But if we were using the Wasm more like a typical function than an app, we might not be counting a million words, but doing something more light-weight. Let’s re-run the comparison, but with the smallest file instead.

With Wasm, using our interpreter:

$ time WASMTIME_NEW_CLI=0 wasmtime run --mapdir /text::/home/rich/git/convenience/wordcount count.wasm $* /text/Clarissa_Harlowe/summary.md
        9     153    1044 /text/Clarissa_Harlowe/summary.md
Elapsed time (ms): 21
Elapsed time (us): 21020.8

real    0m0.098s
user    0m0.083s
sys 0m0.014s

With Wasm and native AOT:

$ time WASMTIME_NEW_CLI=0 wasmtime run --mapdir /text::/home/rich/git/convenience/wordcount count.wasm $* /text/Clarissa_Harlowe/summary.md
        9     153    1044 /text/Clarissa_Harlowe/summary.md
Elapsed time (ms): 0
Elapsed time (us): 825.3

real    0m0.048s
user    0m0.035s
sys 0m0.014s

Again, with CoreCLR:

$ time ./app/count ../Clarissa_Harlowe/summary.md 
        9     153    1044 ../Clarissa_Harlowe/summary.md
Elapsed time (ms): 16
Elapsed time (us): 16100

real    0m0.063s
user    0m0.027s
sys 0m0.019s

performance chart comparing wasm, AOT, and JIT implementations

This chart shows all of the results in context, this time for the smaller document.

Interesting. For a smaller workload, the performance differences between some of these options starts to close. We can also see the differences in runtime startup costs. It’s too early to say, but these dynamics may be a key consideration for this technology. An important caveat is that word counting is just one scenario and other scenarios may have quite different results. For now, this sample is providing a sufficient taste of what to expect.

This is all still early days. As we get farther, we’ll want to test more interesting scenarios to developer a more representative understanding. I’m also sure that some of these performance numbers will improve.

A slight improvement in functionality

The promise of WASI is being able to rely on a set of interfaces (and matching implementations) with rich functionality. SpiderLighting delivers on this promise.

SpiderLightning: A set of WIT interfaces that abstract distributed application capabilities and a runtime CLI for running Wasm applications that use these capabilities.

As stated earlier, WASI is intended to define the same kind of platform functionality we have with the System namespace (but a small subset of that). You can see the interface definitions for (at least one vision of) that in the SpiderLighting wit directory.

If you’ve got wits about you, then use your wits

You should be able to walk up to any WIT interface, reference it, see its full type shape, and start coding with it. We’re still a couple steps away from the final experience, but that’s the vision.

SpiderLighting ships a handy CLI tool called slight that wires up wasmtime, your app, the WASI SDK and any of the WIT implementations required by your app (as declared in a slightfile.toml).

The SpiderLighting team told us they built slight (and related components) as a tool to help them develop the wasi-cloud-core specification, to enable serverless capabilities. In the near future, we expect other app hosts, like Fermyon Spin, to use wasi-cloud-core interfaces and then we’d use one of those hosts instead of slight.

We have a set of Spiderlight samples. The following sample creates a WASI key-value store and then prints to the console. Note that dotnet run is using slight as an implementation detail.

using SpiderLightning;

using var keyValue = new KeyValue("placeholder-name");
keyValue.Set("somekey", "Hello from .NET. This value is from a SpiderLightning key-value store.");

Console.WriteLine(keyValue.GetString("somekey"));

Remember that KeyValue isn’t a C# type but a WASI interface projected into C#.

Here’s what the code looks like when run.

$ pwd
/home/rich/git/spiderlightning-dotnet
$ docker run --rm -it -v $(pwd):/source -w /source/sample/ConsoleApp wasi-sdk dotnet run -c Release
Hello from .NET. This value is from a SpiderLightning key-value store.

I’m running the app in a container that has all the required dependencies installed. Can containers and WASI be used together? For sure.

You can build apps that rely on the WASI SDK in a limited set of environments and run them with slight in a larger set of environments. Windows and macOS Arm64 seem to be worst off for support. That will certainly change over time.

Web scenarios

A lot of the interest in WASI is to enable hosting small and portable Wasm functions and apps. A key aspect of that is using some form of web programming model. At the moment, we don’t have ASP.NET Core enabled with WASI. For now, we’ve exposed the http-server WASI type.

It enables the following pattern.

HttpServer.OnIncomingRequest(request =>
{
    return new HttpResponse(200)
        .WithBody($"<h1>Hello!</h1> You did a {request.Method} request to {request.Uri} with {request.Headers.Count} headers")
        .WithHeaders(new[] { KeyValuePair.Create("content-type", "text/html") });
});

That’s a bit low-level. The delegate also isn’t async friendly. Here’s some hints into how async might eventually work.

I tried writing a bigger sample with this API. It’s currently blocked because we don’t have a way to call https endpoints. I could have worked around that by copying all the required JSON files locally, but wouldn’t be nearly as compelling.

This area is the most interesting, but is also the least defined. We expect that we’re at least a year away from being able to run what we all consider real web apps and functions. We’re aiming for a model where you don’t have to change much of your code to use Wasm as a deployment target.

Experiment

The WASI workload is currently an experiment, hence the workload name. It will remain an experiment at least until WASI itelf has a stable 1.0 release. We cannot predict with any certainty when that will be.

There are several backlog items to investigate and resolve:

  • Integrated debugging
  • AOT support
  • dotnet run with wasmtime CLI arguments
  • Support for more WASI interfaces, likely via better witbindgen support

Closing

The higher-level story is that we’ve been able to adapt our Blazor Wasm implementation — and really .NET as a whole — to this new frontier of portable computing. A lot already works, as demonstrated by these few demos.

You can try out everything (and more) you’ve read in this post with .NET 8. Start with the following command, to install the required software.

dotnet workload install wasi-experimental

Over the next year, we’ll be focused on improving the capability and UX of our current implementation and following along with the general evolution of WASI. We’re also looking forward to watching how cloud teams adopt WASI within their services. To date, we’ve been building enabling technology. As we get farther, we’ll consider focusing on more targeting experiences that pair with a cloud service. For now, that’s all future looking, like the rest of WASI.

Brevity is the soul of wit. — William Shakespeare

If you got this far, you can appreciate that you wouldn’t be nearly so well informed if I’d been brief. But with the length and detail of this post, I’m at my wit’s end.

17 comments

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  • Kai Walter 2

    Thank you for seriously bringing .NET also into WASM space! I will immediately get at it.

  • Sławek Rosiek 1

    Can we expect hosting of WebAssembly on Azure? Without AKS

    • Richard LanderMicrosoft employee 0

      No announcements to make, but we’re interested in both pure function and AKS-style solutions. We think that there is a place for both.

  • Laszlo Deak 0

    What does WASM AOT mean in the performance measurements of word count? Is it AOT wasm? (so not x64 or ARM64 code)

    • Richard LanderMicrosoft employee 5

      There are two layers of AOT:

      • AOT of IL -> Wasm. That’s what native AOT is providing in the word count example.
      • AOT of Wasm -> [x64 | Arm64 | …]. That’s what wamr provides and I didn’t show in the post.

      We did some basic testing of wamr for AOT, with our native AOT back-end. So, that’s basically AOT*2. The results looks really promising. We’ll have more to share about Wasm, including our AOT story, in the first half of next year. We need to transition to WASI Preview 2 as the first step. That will be huge and significantly increase the usability of the experience / tools. Usability is a bit low right now, generally with WASI.

  • David Taylor 1

    Thanks for this Richard – all super exciting, along with the experimental isolation stuff Steve Sanderson has been experimenting with. I will go through this in detail after work, but thanks in advance!

  • mumti shah 0

    The wasm runtime is not contained in Appbundle directory, right?

    • Richard LanderMicrosoft employee 1

      Depends what you mean. The Wasm build of the .NET runtime is there, either as dotnet.wasm or contained within the app wasm file if you used the WasmSingleFileBundle setting. wasmtime isn’t contained there and needs to be installed separately.

      • mumti shah 0

        Thanks. That clarifies everything. I was asking about wasmtime.

  • Rod Macdonald 0

    That’s a an interesting proposition. 2 things:
    1) what mechanisms might be available for persisting online and offline data in between sessions?
    2) at least in the UK, Azure seems prohibitively expensive compared to shared hosting space. Do you foresee a situation where the WASM/WASI model might become viable for hosting app instances?

  • Homero Lara 0

    Wow! Thanks for sharing this. Now I have something to tinker on over the new few weekends.

  • Bart Plasmeijer 0

    Awesome summary Richard.

    • Richard LanderMicrosoft employee 0

      Thanks for your support!

  • Chris 0

    What’s the best location to follow this work?

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