The future of .NET Standard

Immo Landwerth

Since .NET 5 was announced, many of you have asked what this means for .NET Standard and whether it will still be relevant. In this post, I’m going to explain how .NET 5 improves code sharing and replaces .NET Standard. I’ll also cover the cases where you still need .NET Standard.

For the impatient: TL;DR

.NET 5 will be a single product with a uniform set of capabilities and APIs that can be used for Windows desktop apps, cross-platform mobile apps, console apps, cloud services, and websites:

To better reflect this, we’ve updated the target framework names (TFMs):

  • net5.0. This is for code that runs everywhere. It combines and replaces the netcoreapp and netstandard names. This TFM will generally only include technologies that work cross-platform (except for pragmatic concessions, like we already did in .NET Standard).
  • net5.0-windows (and later net6.0-android and net6.0-ios). These TFMs represent OS-specific flavors of .NET 5 that include net5.0 plus OS-specific functionality.

We won’t be releasing a new version of .NET Standard, but .NET 5 and all future versions will continue to support .NET Standard 2.1 and earlier. You should think of net5.0 (and future versions) as the foundation for sharing code moving forward.

And since net5.0 is the shared base for all these new TFMs, that means that the runtime, library, and new language features are coordinated around this version number. For example, in order to use C# 9, you need to use net5.0 or net5.0-windows.

What you should target

.NET 5 and all future versions will always support .NET Standard 2.1 and earlier. The only reason to retarget from .NET Standard to .NET 5 is to gain access to more runtime features, language features, or APIs. So, you can think of .NET 5 as .NET Standard vNext.

What about new code? Should you still start with .NET Standard 2.0 or should you go straight to .NET 5? It depends.

  • App components. If you’re using libraries to break down your application into several components, my recommendation is to use netX.Y where X.Y is the lowest number of .NET that your application (or applications) are targeting. For simplicity, you probably want all projects that make up your application to be on the same version of .NET because it means you can assume the same BCL features everywhere.
  • Reusable libraries. If you’re building reusable libraries that you plan on shipping on NuGet, you’ll want to consider the trade-off between reach and available feature set. .NET Standard 2.0 is the highest version of .NET Standard that is supported by .NET Framework, so it will give you the most reach, while also giving you a fairly large feature set to work with. We’d generally recommend against targeting .NET Standard 1.x as it’s not worth the hassle anymore. If you don’t need to support .NET Framework, then you can either go with .NET Standard 2.1 or .NET 5. Most code can probably skip .NET Standard 2.1 and go straight to .NET 5.

So, what should you do? My expectation is that widely used libraries will end up multi-targeting for both .NET Standard 2.0 and .NET 5: supporting .NET Standard 2.0 gives you the most reach while supporting .NET 5 ensures you can leverage the latest platform features for customers that are already on .NET 5.

In a couple of years, the choice for reusable libraries will only involve the version number of netX.Y, which is basically how building libraries for .NET has always worked — you generally want to support some older version in order to ensure you get the most reach.

To summarize:

  • Use netstandard2.0 to share code between .NET Framework and all other platforms.
  • Use netstandard2.1 to share code between Mono, Xamarin, and .NET Core 3.x.
  • Use net5.0 for code sharing moving forward.

Problems with .NET Standard

.NET Standard has made it much easier to create libraries that work on all .NET platforms. But there are still three problems with .NET Standard:

  1. It versions slowly, which means you can’t easily use the latest features.
  2. It needs a decoder ring to map versions to .NET implementations.
  3. It exposes platform-specific features, which means you can’t statically validate whether your code is truly portable.

Let’s see how .NET 5 will address all three issues.

Problem 1: .NET Standard versions slowly

.NET Standard was designed at a time where the .NET platforms weren’t converged at the implementation level. This made writing code that needs to work in different environments hard, because different workloads used different .NET implementations.

The goal of .NET Standard was to unify the feature set of the base class library (BCL), so that you can write a single library that can run everywhere. And this has served us well: .NET Standard is supported by over 77% of the top 1000 packages. And if we look at all packages on that have been updated in the last 6 months, the adoption is at 58%.

#Packages supporting .NET Standard

But standardizing the API set alone creates a tax. It requires coordination whenever we’re adding new APIs — which happens all the time. The .NET open-source community (which includes the .NET team) keeps innovating in the BCL by providing new language features, usability improvements, new cross-cutting features such as Span<T>, or supporting new data formats or networking protocols.

And while we can provide new types as NuGet packages, we can’t provide new APIs on existing types this way. So, in the general sense, innovation in the BCL requires shipping a new version of .NET Standard.

Up until .NET Standard 2.0, this wasn’t really an issue because we only standardized existing APIs. But in .NET Standard 2.1, we standardized brand new APIs and that’s where we saw quite a bit of friction.

Where does this friction come from?

.NET Standard is an API set that all .NET implementations have to support, so there is an editorial aspect to it in that all APIs must be reviewed by the .NET Standard review board. The board is comprised of .NET platform implementers as well as representatives of the .NET community. The goal is to only standardize APIs that we can truly implement in all current and future .NET platforms. These reviews are necessary because there are different implementations of the .NET stack, with different constraints.

We predicted this type of friction, which is why we said early on that .NET Standard will only standardize APIs that were already shipped in at least one .NET implementation. This seems reasonable at first, but then you realize that .NET Standard can’t ship very frequently. So, if a feature misses a particular release, you might have to wait for a couple of years before it’s even available and potentially even longer until this version of .NET Standard is widely supported.

We felt for some features that opportunity loss was too high, so we did unnatural acts to standardize APIs that weren’t shipped yet (such as IAsyncEnumerable<T>). Doing this for all features was simply too expensive, which is why quite a few of them still missed the .NET Standard 2.1 train (such as the new hardware intrinsics).

But what if there was a single code base? And what if that code base would have to support all the aspects that make .NET implementations differ today, such as supporting both just-in-time (JIT) compilation and ahead-of-time (AOT) compilation?

Instead of doing these reviews as an afterthought, we’d make all these aspects part of the feature design, right from the start. In such a world, the standardized API set is, by construction, the common API set. When a feature is implemented, it would already be available for everyone because the code base is shared.

Problem 2: .NET Standard needs a decoder ring

Separating the API set from its implementation doesn’t just slow down the availability of APIs. It also means that we need to map .NET Standard versions to their implementations. As someone who had to explain this table to many people over time, I’ve come to appreciate just how complicated this seemingly simple idea is. We’ve tried our best to make it easier, but in the end, it’s just inherent complexity because the API set and the implementations are shipped independently.

We have unified the .NET platforms by adding yet another synthetic platform below them all that represents the common API set. In a very real sense, this XKCD-inspired comic is spot on:

How .NET platforms proliferate

We can’t solve this problem without truly merging some rectangles in our layer diagram, which is what .NET 5 does: it provides a unified implementation where all parties build on the same foundation and thus get the same API shape and version number.

Problem 3: .NET Standard exposes platform-specific APIs

When we designed .NET Standard, we had to make pragmatic concessions in order to avoid breaking the library ecosystem too much. That is, we had to include some Windows-only APIs (such as file system ACLs, the registry, WMI, and so on). Moving forward, we will avoid adding platform-specific APIs to net5.0, net6.0 and future versions. However, it’s impossible for us to predict the future. For example, with Blazor WebAssembly we have recently added a new environment where .NET runs and some of the otherwise cross-platform APIs (such as threading or process control) can’t be supported in the browser’s sandbox.

Many of you have complained that these kind of APIs feel like “landmines” – the code compiles without errors and thus appears to being portable to any platform, but when running on a platform that doesn’t have an implementation for the given API, you get runtime errors.

Starting with .NET 5, we’re shipping analyzers and code fixers with the SDK that are on by default. This includes the platform compatibility analyzer that detects unintentional use of APIs that aren’t supported on the platforms you intend to run on. This feature replaces the Microsoft.DotNet.Analyzers.Compatibility NuGet package.

Let’s first look at Windows-specific APIs.

Dealing with Windows-specific APIs

When you create a project targeting net5.0, you can reference the Microsoft.Win32.Registry package. But when you start using it, you’ll get the following warnings:

private static string GetLoggingDirectory()
    using (RegistryKey key = Registry.CurrentUser.OpenSubKey(@"Software\Fabrikam"))
        if (key?.GetValue("LoggingDirectoryPath") is string configuredPath)
            return configuredPath;

    string exePath = Process.GetCurrentProcess().MainModule.FileName;
    string folder = Path.GetDirectoryName(exePath);
    return Path.Combine(folder, "Logging");
CA1416: 'RegistryKey.OpenSubKey(string)' is supported on 'windows'
CA1416: 'Registry.CurrentUser' is supported on 'windows'
CA1416: 'RegistryKey.GetValue(string?)' is supported on 'windows'

You have three options on how you can address these warnings:

  1. Guard the call. You can check whether you’re running on Windows before calling the API by using OperatingSystem.IsWindows().
  2. Mark the call as Windows-specific. In some cases, it might make sense to mark the calling member as platform-specific via [SupportedOSPlatform("windows")].
  3. Delete the code. Generally not what you want because it means you lose fidelity when your code is used by Windows users, but for cases where a cross-platform alternative exists, you’re likely better off using that over platform-specific APIs. For example, instead of using the registry, you could use an XML configuration file.
  4. Suppress the warning. You can of course cheat and simply suppress the warning, either via .editorconfig or #pragma warning disable. However, you should prefer options (1) and (2) when using platform-specific APIs.

To guard the call, use the new static methods on the System.OperatingSystem class, for example:

private static string GetLoggingDirectory()
    if (OperatingSystem.IsWindows())
        using (RegistryKey key = Registry.CurrentUser.OpenSubKey(@"Software\Fabrikam"))
            if (key?.GetValue("LoggingDirectoryPath") is string configuredPath)
                return configuredPath;

    string exePath = Process.GetCurrentProcess().MainModule.FileName;
    string folder = Path.GetDirectoryName(exePath);
    return Path.Combine(folder, "Logging");

To mark your code as Windows-specific, apply the new SupportedOSPlatform attribute:

private static string GetLoggingDirectory()
    using (RegistryKey key = Registry.CurrentUser.OpenSubKey(@"Software\Fabrikam"))
        if (key?.GetValue("LoggingDirectoryPath") is string configuredPath)
            return configuredPath;

    string exePath = Process.GetCurrentProcess().MainModule.FileName;
    string folder = Path.GetDirectoryName(exePath);
    return Path.Combine(folder, "Logging");

In both cases, the warnings for using the registry will disappear.

The key difference is that in the second example the analyzer will now issue warnings for the call sites of GetLoggingDirectory() because it is now considered to be a Windows-specific API. In other words, you forward the requirement of doing the platform check to your callers.

The [SupportedOSPlatform] attribute can be applied to the member, type, or assembly level. This attribute is also used by the BCL itself. For example, the assembly Microsoft.Win32.Registry has this attribute applied, which is how the analyzer knows that the registry is a Windows-specific API in the first place.

Note that if you target net5.0-windows, this attribute is automatically applied to your assembly. That means using Windows-specific APIs from net5.0-windows will never generate any warnings because your entire assembly is considered to be Windows-specific.

Dealing with APIs that are unsupported in Blazor WebAssembly

Blazor WebAssembly projects run inside the browser sandbox, which constrains which APIs you can use. For example, while thread and process creation are both cross-platform APIs, we can’t make these APIs work in Blazor WebAssembly, which means they throw PlatformNotSupportedException. We have marked these APIs with [UnsupportedOSPlatform("browser")].

Let’s say you copy & paste the GetLoggingDirectory() method into a Blazor WebAssembly application.

private static string GetLoggingDirectory()

    string exePath = Process.GetCurrentProcess().MainModule.FileName;
    string folder = Path.GetDirectoryName(exePath);
    return Path.Combine(folder, "Logging");

You’ll get the following warnings:

CA1416 'Process.GetCurrentProcess()' is unsupported on 'browser'
CA1416 'Process.MainModule' is unsupported on 'browser'

To deal with these warnings, you have basically the same options as with Windows-specific APIs.

You can guard the call:

private static string GetLoggingDirectory()

    if (!OperatingSystem.IsBrowser())
        string exePath = Process.GetCurrentProcess().MainModule.FileName;
        string folder = Path.GetDirectoryName(exePath);
        return Path.Combine(folder, "Logging");
        return string.Empty;

Or you can mark the member as being unsupported by Blazor WebAssembly:

private static string GetLoggingDirectory()

    string exePath = Process.GetCurrentProcess().MainModule.FileName;
    string folder = Path.GetDirectoryName(exePath);
    return Path.Combine(folder, "Logging");

Since the browser sandbox is fairly restrictive, not all class libraries and NuGet packages should be expected to work in Blazor WebAssembly. Furthermore, the vast majority of libraries aren’t expected to support running in Blazor WebAssembly either.

That’s why regular class libraries targeting net5.0 won’t see warnings for APIs that are unsupported by Blazor WebAssembly. You have to explicitly indicate that you intend to support your project in Blazor Web Assembly by adding the <SupportedPlatform> item to your project file:

<Project Sdk="Microsoft.NET.Sdk">

    <SupportedPlatform Include="browser" />

If you’re building a Blazor WebAssembly application, you don’t have to do this because the Microsoft.NET.Sdk.BlazorWebAssembly SDK does this automatically.

.NET 5 as the combination of .NET Standard & .NET Core

.NET 5 and subsequent versions will be a single code base that supports desktop apps, mobile apps, cloud services, websites, and whatever environment .NET will run on tomorrow.

You might think “hold on, this sounds great, but what if someone wants to create a completely new implementation”. That’s fine too. But virtually nobody will start one from scratch. Most likely, it will be a fork of the current code base (dotnet/runtime). For example, Tizen (the Samsung platform for smart appliances) uses a .NET Core with minimal changes and a Samsung-specific app model on top.

Forking preserves a merge relationship, which allows maintainers to keep pulling in new changes from the dotnet/runtime repo, benefiting from BCL innovations in areas unaffected by their changes. That’s very similar to how Linux distros work.

Granted, there are cases where one might want to create a very different “kind” of .NET, such as a minimal runtime without the current BCL. But that would mean that it couldn’t leverage the existing .NET library ecosystem anyway, which means it wouldn’t have implemented .NET Standard either. We’re generally not interested in pursuing this direction, but the convergence of .NET Standard and .NET Core doesn’t prevent that nor does it make it any harder.

.NET versioning

As a library author, you’re probably wondering when .NET 5 will be widely supported. Moving forward, we’ll ship .NET every year in November, with every other year being a Long Term Support (LTS) release.

.NET 5 will ship in November 2020 and .NET 6 will ship in November 2021 as an LTS. We created this fixed schedule to make it easier for you to plan your updates (if you’re an app developer) and predict the demand for supported .NET versions (if you’re a library developer).

Thanks to the ability to install .NET Core side-by-side, new versions are adopted fairly fast with LTS versions being the most popular. In fact, .NET Core 3.1 was the fastest adopted .NET version ever.

.NET 5 Schedule

The expectation is that every time we ship, we ship all framework names in conjunction. For example, it might look something like this:

.NET 5 .NET 6 .NET 7
net5.0 net6.0 net7.0
net6.0-android net7.0-android
net6.0-ios net7.0-ios
net5.0-windows net6.0-windows net7.0-windows

This means that you can generally expect that whatever innovation we did in the BCL, you’re going to be able to use it from all app models, no matter which platform they run on. It also means that libraries shipped for the latest net framework can always be consumed from all app models, as long as you run the latest version of them.

This model removes the complexity around .NET Standard versioning because each time we ship, you can assume that all platforms are going to support the new version immediately and completely. And we cement this promise by using the prefix naming convention.

New versions of .NET might add support for other platforms. For example, we will add support for Android and iOS, with .NET 6. Conversely, we might stop supporting platforms that are no longer relevant. This is illustrated by the pretend net5.0-someoldos target framework that doesn’t exist in .NET 6. We have no plans for dropping a platform, but the model supports it. That would be a big deal, isn’t expected and would be announced long in advance. That’s the same model we had with .NET Standard, where, for example, there is no new version of Windows Phone that implements a later version of .NET Standard.

Why there is no TFM for WebAssembly

We originally considered adding TFM for WebAssembly, such as net5.0-wasm. We decided against that for the following reasons:

  • WebAssembly is more like an instruction set (such as x86 or x64) than like an operating system. And we generally don’t offer divergent APIs between different architectures.
  • WebAssembly’s execution model in the browser sandbox is a key differentiator, but we decided that it makes more sense to only model this as a runtime check. Similar to how you check for Windows and Linux, you can use the OperatingSystem type. Since this isn’t about instruction set, the method is called IsBrowser() rather than IsWebAssembly().
  • There are runtime identifiers (RID) for WebAssembly, called browser and browser-wasm. They allow package authors to deploy different binaries when targeting WebAssembly in a browser. This is especially useful for native code which needs to be compiled to web assembly beforehand.

As described above, we have marked APIs that are unsupported in the browser sandbox, such as System.Diagnostics.Process. If you use those APIs from inside a browser app, you’ll get a warning telling you that this APIs is unsupported.


net5.0 is for code that runs everywhere. It combines and replaces the netcoreapp and netstandard names. We also have platform-specific frameworks, such as net5.0-windows (and later also net6.0-android, and net6.0-ios).

Since there is no difference between the standard and its implementation, you’ll be able to take advantage of new features much quicker than with .NET Standard. And due to the naming convention, you’ll be able to easily tell who can consume a given library — without having to consult the .NET Standard version table.

While .NET Standard 2.1 will be the last version of .NET Standard, .NET 5 and all future versions will continue to support .NET Standard 2.1 and earlier. You should think of net5.0 (and future versions) as the foundation for sharing code moving forward.

Happy coding!


Discussion is closed. Login to edit/delete existing comments.

  • ColdFire Dragon 0

    So will there be a net5.0-macos to go along with the windows, android and ios?

  • Michal Dobrodenka 0

    I don’t like the idea of c# 9 tied with net5.

    I’m in IoT and my library has to support mono, because net5 doesn’t run on ARMv6.

    Will mono support net5 in future? Or will net6 support more CPU architectures?

    • Richard LanderMicrosoft employee 0

      No plans for ARMv6 with CoreCLR or other CPU architectures.

      I believe we’ll have Mono console apps with the net6.0 API with 6.0.

  • Matteo Spreafico 1

    How much changes (or what kind of impact) can we expect when upgrading to an LTS from the previous non-LTS? Or, to tell it in another way, does it makes sense to start big a project today on 5.0 planning to upgrade to 6.0 as soon as it will be available?

    • Matteo Spreafico 0

      No one monitoring comments here?

      • Immo LandwerthMicrosoft employee 0

        Sorry for the delay. We generally strive to keep the breaking changes to a minimum. You can expect that the lowest part of the stack (languages and BCL) have close to zero breaking changes while higher layers (ASP.NET Core, WinForms, WPF) will likely always have some. We’re committed to documenting all changes in the release notes.

        • Matteo Spreafico 0

          thank you very much Immo.

  • Daren May 0

    The way that compatibility works between libraries and TFMs has always been a little confusing to me. To give a concrete example, documented as a GitHub issue here, I have installed .NET5.0 RC1 and I create a console app and add a reference to the Microsoft.Azure.Devices.Client nuget package:

    dotnet new console
    dotnet add package Microsoft.Azure.Devices.Client

    This creates a console app that targets: net5.0
    The reference is added without warnings and issue, however when I try to use a method within the package, I get the following exception:

    Unhandled exception. System.NotSupportedException: Specified method is not supported.
       at Microsoft.Azure.Devices.Client.Common.ReadOnlyMergeDictionary`2.System.Collections.Generic.ICollection<System.Collections.Generic.KeyValuePair>.get_Count()

    When I look at the target types for the nuget package, I see this:

        <SupportsNetStandard20AndAbove Condition="'$(TargetFramework)' == 'netstandard2.1' Or '$(TargetFramework)' == 'netstandard2.0' Or '$(TargetFramework)' == 'net472'">true</SupportsNetStandard20AndAbove>

    Naively, I expected this to work as .NET5.0 RC1 is compatible with netstandard2.1 and netstandard2.0 (and I imagine it is a superset) yet it does not. Changing the TFM of the console app to netcoreapp3.1 and rebuilding/running executes correctly.

    How can I ensure at compile time that all of my dependencies will run without error?

    • Immo LandwerthMicrosoft employee 0

      You’re totally correct, this should just work. I consider this a bug in the Azure client library. I’ve filed a bug.

      How can I ensure at compile time that all of my dependencies will run without error?

      Well, you generally can’t. TFMs are a tiny part of all the bugs a library can have. For example, if the author of the library never tested their code on Linux it might only work on Windows. There is no way to know this until statically.

      • Azad AbbasiMicrosoft employee 0

        Bug is acknowledged and fix is in progress.

      • Daren May 0

        Thanks for clarifying – I thought I was losing my mind!

        • Azad AbbasiMicrosoft employee 0

          We have released a new version of the SDK that should include the fix for the issue above.
          We will appreciate if you could confirm that you no longer see this behavior.
          Release Notes

          Microsoft.Azure.Devices v1.27.2
          Mirosoft.Azure.Devices.Client v1.31.2


  • André Köhler 0

    I’m really happy with the direction .NET is taking.

  • Mohammad Prince 0

    quite well done

  • Lud Lelud 0

    Is the UNO platform considered in this roadmap?
    Is UNO considered at all? or is it destined to stay on the side…?
    UNO is pulling in right/same direction, or have i missed something?

    Yep not much of a comment, only questions… 🙂

  • Jon Miller 0

    So, now that you have net5.0-windows, I’m assuming you will be adding features such as Web Forms to it? I have a lot of Web Forms applications that will not be moved forward. Is Visual Studio going to continue to support .NET Framework 4.8?

    • Immo LandwerthMicrosoft employee 0

      Having net5.0-windows doesn’t mean we’re bringing all functionality from .NET Framework. In fact, we have said that we won’t. Specifically, we have said that we will not add support for AppDomains, remoting, Web Forms, WCF server, and Windows Workflow.

      Visual Studio will continue to support creating & maintaining .NET Framework applications, yes.

  • Eric 0

    Thanks for this article.

    I am quite curious to know the distribution of .NET developers by their product platform: mobile, Windows software, cloud oriented solutions, etc: quite different requirements!

    net5.0, net5.0-windows, net6.0-android, net6.0-ios, etc: I understand they are always platform specific extensions, but their use should stay the exception, not the norm, isn’t it? I mean, with .netCore and one unified .NET (5 and so on), we want to have the short version (e.g. .net5.0) as target for the large majority of products, don’t we?

    .NET Standard 2.0 made a lot of sense to me, to share dll between .NET Framework 4.x and .NET Core projects.
    But I never really understood the purpose of .Net Standard 2.1 since only the .NET Core can consume it. So it is a fixed amount of libraries and every .NET Core and higher are super set of this .NET Std 2.1. So .NET Std 2.1 makes only sense for pure C# code without any external dependencies, right? For instance for generated code.

    In the product I am working on (containerized with .NET Core 3.1-Alpine as target, while developing under VS2019 in Windows), I’ve used .net Standard 2.1 only once, for a bunch of classes generated from a Thrift interface.
    For another base common C# libraries, I started also with .NET Standard, but then realized the System.Text.Json are not in the standard (quite logic since it came after), so I simply targeted netcoreapp3.1. Goal of using System.Text.Json is to get rid of Newtonsoft.Json, I don’t want to see yet another dependency!

    Moreover, targeting the .NET Standard disable the advanced code analyzers (like FXCop) in Visual Studio. So not so great for delivering clean code!

    Regarding C#9 only available for .NET 5, it is a bit a disappointment: with earlier versions, it was possible in VS to specify the C# and target framework more or less independently: one get work with the last version of C# and still target a lower .NET Core or Framework version.
    So no way to use C#9 and still target netcoreapp3.1. with up-to-date Visual Studio ?

  • Mil Yan 0

    You say “net5.0 is for code that runs everywhere”, but that does not appear to be true. You have moved what effectively is a package level check into runtime checks. When I look at the nuget I have no way of knowing if net50 built package is Linux or Mac compatible or if it has windows bindings which will pop up in runtime when it hits OperatingSystem.IsWindows() or fails to load assemblies.
    I can understand this being easier for you, but whole reason behind a standard is not to be easy, its to be cross-platform compatible. And NetStandard assured of that. You are not solving the problem, you are just dumping the problem in our lap.

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