Announcing TypeScript 5.3 Beta

Daniel Rosenwasser

Today we are excited to announce the availability of TypeScript 5.3 Beta.

To get started using the beta, you can get it through NuGet, or through npm with the following command:

npm install -D typescript@beta

Here’s a quick list of what’s new in TypeScript 5.3!

Import Attributes

TypeScript 5.3 supports the latest updates to the import attributes proposal.

One use-case of import attributes is to provide information about the expected format of a module to the runtime.

// We only want this to be interpreted as JSON,
// not a runnable/malicious JavaScript file with a `.json` extension.
import obj from "./something.json" with { type: "json" };

The contents of these attributes are not checked by TypeScript since they’re host-specific, and are simply left alone so that browsers and runtimes can handle them (and possibly error).

// TypeScript is fine with this.
// But your browser? Probably not.
import * as foo from "./foo.js" with { type: "fluffy bunny" };

Dynamic import() calls can also use import attributes through a second argument.

const obj = await import("./something.json", {
    with: { type: "json" }
});

The expected type of that second argument is defined by a type called ImportCallOptions, which by default just expects a property called with.

Note that import attributes are an evolution of an earlier proposal called "import assertions", which were implemented in TypeScript 4.5. The most obvious difference is the use of the with keyword over the assert keyword. But the less-visible difference is that runtimes are now free to use attributes to guide the resolution and interpretation of import paths, whereas import assertions could only assert some characteristics after loading a module.

Over time, TypeScript will be deprecating the old syntax for import assertions in favor of the proposed syntax for import attributes. Existing code using assert should migrate towards the with keyword. New code that needs an import attribute should use with exclusively.

We’d like to thank Oleksandr Tarasiuk for implementing this proposal! And we’d also like to call out Wenlu Wang for their implementation of import assertions!

Stable Support resolution-mode in Import Types

In TypeScript 4.7, TypeScript added support for a resolution-mode attribute in /// <reference types="..." /> to control whether a specifier should be resolved via import or require semantics.

/// <reference types="pkg" resolution-mode="require" />

// or

/// <reference types="pkg" resolution-mode="import" />

A corresponding field was added to import assertions on type-only imports as well; however, it was only supported in nightly versions of TypeScript. The rationale was that in spirit, import assertions were not intended to guide module resolution. So this feature was shipped experimentally in a nightly-only mode to get more feedback.

But given that import attributes can guide resolution, and that we’ve seen reasonable use-cases, TypeScript 5.3 now supports the resolution-mode attribute for import type.

// Resolve `pkg` as if we were importing with a `require()`
import type { TypeFromRequire } from "pkg" with {
    "resolution-mode": "require"
};

// Resolve `pkg` as if we were importing with an `import`
import type { TypeFromImport } from "pkg" with {
    "resolution-mode": "import"
};

export interface MergedType extends TypeFromRequire, TypeFromImport {}

These import attributes can also be used on import() types.

export type TypeFromRequire =
    import("pkg", { with: { "resolution-mode": "require" } }).TypeFromRequire;

export type TypeFromImport =
    import("pkg", { with: { "resolution-mode": "import" } }).TypeFromImport;

export interface MergedType extends TypeFromRequire, TypeFromImport {}

For more information, check out the change here

switch (true) Narrowing

TypeScript 5.3 now can perform narrowing based on conditions in each case clause within a switch (true).

function f(x: unknown) {
    switch (true) {
        case typeof x === "string":
            // 'x' is a 'string' here
            console.log(x.toUpperCase());
            // falls through...

        case Array.isArray(x):
            // 'x' is a 'string | any[]' here.
            console.log(x.length);
            // falls through...

        default:
          // 'x' is 'unknown' here.
          // ...
    }
}

This work was contributed courtesy of Mateusz Burzyński. We’d like to extend a "thank you!" for this contribution.

Narrowing On Comparisons to Booleans

Occasionally you may find yourself performing a direct comparison with true or false in a condition. Usually these are unnecessary comparisons, but you might prefer it as a point of style, or to avoid certain issues around JavaScript truthiness. Regardless, previously TypeScript just didn’t recognize such forms when performing narrowing.

TypeScript 5.3 now keeps up and understands these expressions when narrowing variables.

interface A {
    a: string;
}

interface B {
    b: string;
}

type MyType = A | B;

function isA(x: MyType): x is A {
    return "a" in x;
}

function someFn(x: MyType) {
    if (isA(x) === true) {
        console.log(x.a); // works!
    }
}

We’d like to thank Mateusz Burzyński for the pull request that implemented this.

instanceof Narrowing Through Symbol.hasInstance

A slightly esoteric feature of JavaScript is that it is possible to override the behavior of the instanceof operator. To do so, the value on the right side of the instanceof operator needs to have a specific method named by Symbol.hasInstance.

class Weirdo {
    static [Symbol.hasInstance](testedValue) {
        // wait, what?
        return testedValue === undefined;
    }
}

// false
console.log(new Thing() instanceof Weirdo);

// true
console.log(undefined instanceof Weirdo);

To better model this behavior in instanceof, TypeScript now checks if such a [Symbol.hasInstance] method exists and is declared as a type predicate function. If it does, the tested value on the left side of the instanceof operator will be narrowed appropriately by that type predicate.

interface PointLike {
    x: number;
    y: number;
}

class Point implements PointLike {
    x: number;
    y: number;

    constructor(x: number, y: number) {
        this.x = x;
        this.y = y;
    }

    distanceFromOrigin() {
        return Math.sqrt(this.x ** 2 + this.y ** 2);
    }

    static [Symbol.hasInstance](val: unknown): val is PointLike {
        return !!val && typeof val === "object" &&
            "x" in val && "y" in val &&
            typeof val.x === "number" &&
            typeof val.y === "number";
    }
}


function f(value: unknown) {
    if (value instanceof Point) {
        // Can access both of these - correct!
        value.x;
        value.y;

        // Can't access this - we have a 'PointLike',
        // but we don't *actually* have a 'Point'.
        value.distanceFromOrigin();
    }
}

As you can see in this example, Point defines its own [Symbol.hasInstance] method. It actually acts as a custom type guard over a separate type called PointLike. In the function f, we were able to narrow value down to a PointLike with instanceof, but not a Point. That means that we can access the properties x and y, but not the method distanceFromOrigin.

For more information, you can read up on this change here.

Checks for super Property Accesses on Instance Fields

In JavaScript, it’s possible to access a declaration in a base class through the super keyword.

class Base {
    someMethod() {
        console.log("Base method called!");
    }
}

class Derived extends Base {
    someMethod() {
        console.log("Derived method called!");
        super.someMethod();
    }
}

new Derived().someMethod();
// Prints:
//   Derived method called!
//   Base method called!

This is different from writing something like this.someMethod(), since that could invoke an overridden method. This is a subtle distinction, made more subtle by the fact that often the two can be interchangeable if a declaration is never overridden at all.

class Base {
    someMethod() {
        console.log("someMethod called!");
    }
}

class Derived extends Base {
    someOtherMethod() {
        // These act identically.
        this.someMethod();
        super.someMethod();
    }
}

new Derived().someOtherMethod();
// Prints:
//   someMethod called!
//   someMethod called!

The problem is using them interchangeably is that super only works on members declared on the prototype — not instance properties. That means that if you wrote super.someMethod(), but someMethod was defined as a field, you’d get a runtime error!

class Base {
    someMethod = () => {
        console.log("someMethod called!");
    }
}

class Derived extends Base {
    someOtherMethod() {
        super.someMethod();
    }
}

new Derived().someOtherMethod();
// 💥
// Doesn't work because 'super.someMethod' is 'undefined'.

TypeScript 5.3 now more-closely inspects super property accesses/method calls to see if they correspond to class fields. If they do, we’ll now get a type-checking error.

This check was contributed thanks to Jack Works!

Interactive Inlay Hints for Types

TypeScript’s inlay hints now support jumping to the definition of types! This makes it easier to casually navigate your code.

Ctrl-clicking an inlay hint to jump to the definition of a parameter type.

See more at the implementation here.

Optimizations by Skipping JSDoc Parsing

When running TypeScript via tsc, the compiler will now avoid parsing JSDoc. This drops parsing time on its own, but also reduces memory usage to store comments along with time spent in garbage collection. All-in-all, you should see slightly faster compiles and quicker feedback in --watch mode.

The specific changes can be viewed here.

Because not every tool using TypeScript will need to store JSDoc (e.g. typescript-eslint and Prettier), this parsing strategy has been surfaced as part of the API itself. This can enable these tools to gain the same memory and speed improvements we’ve brought to the TypeScript compiler. The new options for comment parsing strategy are described in JSDocParsingMode. More information is available on this pull request.

Optimizations by Comparing Non-Normalized Intersections

In TypeScript, unions and intersections always follow a specific form, where intersections can’t contain union types. That means that when we create an intersection over a union like A & (B | C), that intersection will be normalized into (A & B) | (A & C). Still, in some cases the type system will maintain the original form for display purposes.

It turns out that the original form can be used for some clever fast-path comparisons between types.

For example, let’s say we have SomeType & (Type1 | Type2 | ... | Type99999NINE) and we want to see if that’s assignable to SomeType. Recall that we don’t really have an intersection as our source type — we have a union that looks like (SomeType & Type1) | (SomeType & Type2) | ... |(SomeType & Type99999NINE). When checking if a union is assignable to some target type, we have to check if every member of the union is assignable to the target type, and that can be very slow.

In TypeScript 5.3, we peek at the original intersection form that we were able to tuck away. When we compare the types, we do a quick check to see if the target exists in any constituent of the source intersection.

For more information, see this pull request.

Consolidation Between tsserverlibrary.js and typescript.js

TypeScript itself ships two library files: tsserverlibrary.js and typescript.js. There are certain APIs available only in tsserverlibrary.js (like the ProjectService API), which may be useful to some importers. Still, the two are distinct bundles with have a lot of overlap, duplicating code in the package. What’s more, it can be challenging to consistently use one over the other due to auto-imports or muscle memory. Accidentally loading both modules is far too easy, and code may not work properly on a different instance of the API. Even if it does work, loading a second bundle increases resource usage.

Given this, we’ve decided to consolidate the two. typescript.js now contains what tsserverlibrary.js used to contain, and tsserverlibrary.js now simply re-exports typescript.js. Comparing the before/after of this consolidation, we saw the following reduction in package size:

Before After Diff Diff (percent)
Packed 6.90 MiB 5.48 MiB -1.42 MiB -20.61%
Unpacked 38.74 MiB 30.41 MiB -8.33 MiB -21.50%
Before After Diff Diff (percent)
lib/tsserverlibrary.d.ts 570.95 KiB 865.00 B -570.10 KiB -99.85%
lib/tsserverlibrary.js 8.57 MiB 1012.00 B -8.57 MiB -99.99%
lib/typescript.d.ts 396.27 KiB 570.95 KiB +174.68 KiB +44.08%
lib/typescript.js 7.95 MiB 8.57 MiB +637.53 KiB +7.84%

In other words, this is over a 20.5% reduction in package size.

For more information, you can see the work involved here.

Breaking Changes and Correctness Improvements

lib.d.ts Changes

Types generated for the DOM may have an impact on your codebase. For more information, see the DOM updates for TypeScript 5.3.

Checks for super Accesses on Instance Properties

TypeScript 5.3 now detects when the declaration referenced by a super. property access is a class field and issues an error. This prevents errors that might occur at runtime.

See more on this change here.

What’s Next?

At this point, TypeScript 5.3 is what we’d call "feature-stable". The focus on TypeScript 5.3 will be bug fixes, polish, and certain low-risk editor features. We’ll have a release candidate available in a bit over month, followed by a stable release soon after. If you’re interested in planning around the release, be sure to keep an eye on our iteration plan which has target release dates and more.

As a note: while beta is a great way to try out the next version of TypeScript, you can also try a nightly build to get the most up-to-date version of TypeScript 5.3 up until our release candidate. Our nightlies are well-tested and can even be tested solely in your editor.

So please try out the beta or a nightly release today and let us know what you think!

Happy Hacking!

– Daniel Rosenwasser and the TypeScript Team

5 comments

Comments are closed. Login to edit/delete your existing comments

  • Michael Taylor 0

    The section titled `Stable Support for resolution mode` has a starting code block that is just a comment. Should there be actual code in there or am I missing something?

    • Daniel RosenwasserMicrosoft employee 0

      Fixed, thank you!

  • Ayush Gupta 0

    In the first code block example of “Checks for super Property Accesses on Instance Fields” section, the “Derived” class does not have a

    someOtherMethod() { }

    method. However, it is invoked on

    new Derived().someOtherMethod()

    Does the first code example contain a typo or did I miss something?

    • Daniel RosenwasserMicrosoft employee 0

      Yes, thank you for catching that! It should be fixed now.

  • Matthew Clive 7

    I wasn’t sure where to put this as feedback, but the TypeScript blog is illegible with the new Dark Mode theme for the devblogs website overall. Specifically, all the code samples are black-on-black. Thanks!

Feedback usabilla icon