PowerShell Registry Monitor

Francisco Nabas

Recently, while discussing work-related topics, a co-worker asked me if there is a way of monitoring changes on a Windows registry key. I knew we can monitor files, with the System.IO.FileSystemWatcher .NET class, but never heard of registry monitoring. Well, turns out Windows provides an API for it, and with the help of Interop Services, we can call it from PowerShell.

About tools

To accomplish this, we will need to work with Platform Invoke, or PinVoke for short. It consists of a .NET library that wraps the native APIs to be called by managed .NET code. This library comes with Windows, on the Global Assembly Cache, and also with PowerShell Core.

In addition to that, we will work with a couple of Windows API functions, listed below:

  • RegOpenKeyEx: Responsible for opening a handle to the key.
  • RegNotifyChangeKeyValue: Responsible for monitoring the key, and triggering an event when a change happens.
  • CreateEvent: Responsible for creating the event.
  • WaitForSingleObject: This will monitor the event, and return a result based on the outcome.
  • RegCloseKey: To close the handle to our registry key.
  • CloseHandle: To close the handle to the event created.

The last two commands are not mandatory, because the Interop Services will wrap the handles in something called Safe Handle. This handle is released by the Garbage Collector at the end, but it’s not only a good practice, it creates the habit of monitoring object’s lifecycles. If we are looking into interoperating with Windows more often, we need to get used to how it manages memory, to avoid unexpected behavior.

If you want a series of posts based on PinVoke and interoperability, let me know in the comments!

About definition

If we want to leverage System.Runtime.InteropServices, we need to write part of our code in C#. Don’t get intimidated, C# and PowerShell are very similar, and it won’t be hard at all. Let’s start by defining our functions.

I will demonstrate step by step with RegOpenKeyEx, and the others will follow the same procedure. From Microsoft’s documentation page, the function definition looks like this:

  [in]           HKEY    hKey,
  [in, optional] LPCWSTR lpSubKey,
  [in]           DWORD   ulOptions,
  [in]           REGSAM  samDesired,
  [out]          PHKEY   phkResult

Don’t worry about the W at the end. Most of Windows functions have two versions, the ANSI version, and UNICODE version. Functions terminated in A are ANSI compliant, the W ones comply to UNICODE. If you call RegOpenKeyEx, Windows will route to one of the two.

In order to represent this function with C#, we need to convert the parameter types. This process is often called marshalling. We can interpret these types as follows:

  • HKEY: This represents a handle. Handles are a type of Pointer, so we can represent it as System.IntPtr. Since memory addresses are numbers, this type is a special kind of integer.
  • LPCWSTR: A pointer to a constant string with 16-bit Unicode characters. For us, a System.String.
  • DWORD: A 32-bit unsigned integer. In other words, a System.UInt32.
  • REGSAM: A Registry Security Access Mask. We will talk about it in a bit.
  • PHKEY: A pointer to a variable that will receive the opened key handle. We know that we can represent pointers as System.IntPtr.
  • LSTATUS: The function’s return type. This maps to a long. We will represent it with System.Int.

The REGSAM data type is a list of definitions that will map Registry Key security to unsigned integers, so we can represent it as a System.Uint32. We will be using the KEY_NOTIFY REGSAM, which translates to 0x0010. At the end, our function definition will look something like this:

[DllImport("Advapi32.dll", CharSet = CharSet.Unicode, SetLastError = true)]
public static extern int RegOpenKeyExW(
    IntPtr hKey,
    string lpSubKey,
    uint ulOptions,
    uint samDesired,
    out IntPtr phkResult

The first line in square brackets is called DllImport Attribute. It’s what tells PinVoke which DLL contains the definition for RegOpenKeyExW. CharSet = CharSet.Unicode defines Unicode as our encoding, and SetLastError = true will set the last error with the corresponding Win32 error, if the function call fails. Setting the last error is crucial for debugging and troubleshooting these function calls.

Following the same approach, we write the full code:

using System;
using System.Runtime.InteropServices;

namespace Win32
    public class Regmon
        [DllImport("Advapi32.dll", CharSet = CharSet.Unicode, SetLastError = true)]
        public static extern int RegOpenKeyExW(
            int hKey,
            string lpSubKey,
            int ulOptions,
            uint samDesired,
            out IntPtr phkResult

        [DllImport("Advapi32.dll", CharSet = CharSet.Unicode, SetLastError = true)]
        public static extern int RegNotifyChangeKeyValue(
            IntPtr hKey,
            bool bWatchSubtree,
            int dwNotifyFilter,
            IntPtr hEvent,
            bool fAsynchronous

        [DllImport("Advapi32.dll", CharSet = CharSet.Unicode, SetLastError = true)]
        public static extern int RegCloseKey(IntPtr hKey);

        [DllImport("Advapi32.dll", CharSet = CharSet.Unicode, SetLastError = true)]
        public static extern int CloseHandle(IntPtr hKey);

        [DllImport("kernel32.dll", CharSet = CharSet.Unicode, SetLastError = true)]
        public static extern IntPtr CreateEventW(
            int lpEventAttributes,
            bool bManualReset,
            bool bInitialState,
            string lpName

        [DllImport("kernel32.dll", CharSet = CharSet.Unicode, SetLastError = true)]
        public static extern int WaitForSingleObject(
            IntPtr hHandle,
            int dwMilliseconds

Originally, the parameter lpEventAttributes is from the LPSECURITY_ATTRIBUTES, which is a structure. Since we are not going to use it, defining as int won’t cause troubles. If we were to use it, we could define LPSECURITY_ATTRIBUTES.

Writing the PowerShell code

Now that all the paper work is done, we can write the PowerShell code that will use these functions. To avoid filling your screen with repetitive code, I will represent the previous definition text as $signature. You just have to create a string that will receive the C# code. I use here-strings:

$signature = @'
    Your code goes here.

The final script looks like this:

using namespace System.Runtime.InteropServices

param (

    [string]$LogPath = "$PSScriptRoot\RegMon-$(Get-Date -Format 'yyyyMMdd-hhmmss').log",

    [int]$Timeout = 0xFFFFFFFF #INFINITE

Add-Type -TypeDefinition $signature

if (!(Test-Path -Path $KeyPath)) { throw "Registry key not found." }

switch -Wildcard ((Get-Item $KeyPath).Name) {
    'HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT*' { $regdefault = 0x80000000 }
    'HKEY_CURRENT_USER*' { $regdefault = 0x80000001 }
    'HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE*' { $regdefault = 0x80000002 }
    'HKEY_USERS*' { $regdefault = 0x80000003 }
    Default { throw 'Unsuported hive.' }

$handle = [IntPtr]::Zero
$result = [Win32.Regmon]::RegOpenKeyExW($regdefault, ($KeyPath -replace '^.*:\\'), 0, 0x0010, [ref]$handle)
$event = [Win32.Regmon]::CreateEventW($null, $true, $false, $null)

This will run indefinitely until it fails or reaches a timeout.
Adjust accordingly.
:Outer while ($true) {
    $result = [Win32.Regmon]::RegNotifyChangeKeyValue(
        0x00000001L -bor #REG_NOTIFY_CHANGE_NAME
        0x00000002L -bor #REG_NOTIFY_CHANGE_ATTRIBUTES
        0x00000004L -bor #REG_NOTIFY_CHANGE_LAST_SET
        0x00000008L, #REG_NOTIFY_CHANGE_SECURITY
    $wait = [Win32.Regmon]::WaitForSingleObject($event, $Timeout)

    switch ($wait) {
        0xFFFFFFFF { break Outer } #WAIT_FAILED

        0x00000102L { #WAIT_TIMEOUT
            $outp = 'Timeout reached.'
            Write-Host $outp -ForegroundColor DarkGreen
            Add-Content -FilePath $LogPath -Value $outp
            break Outer

        0 { #WAIT_OBJECT_0 ~> Change detected.
            $outp = "Change triggered on the specified key. Timestamp: $(Get-Date -Format 'hh:mm:ss - dd/MM/yyyy')."
            Write-Host $outp -ForegroundColor DarkGreen
            Add-Content -FilePath $LogPath -Value $outp



When calling RegOpenKeyExW for the first time, we don’t have the handle to the key yet, so we specify which root key we want to use. The parameter lpSubKey is optional. When not specified, the function will monitor the root key.


The RegNotifyChangeKeyValue is limited on what information it provides to the caller. If the parameter bWatchSubtree is false, the function will monitor only the key specified. If this parameter is true, the function monitors subtrees, but if an event is triggered, it will not inform which key was modified.

Is there a way of getting more information about Registry Events? Yes, but this is a topic for another post.


I hope this post made calling Windows API Functions with PowerShell less intimidating. Once you get used to Platform Invoke, you will need a bigger toolbox to store your new tools.

Thank you for following along, once again, and I will see you next time!

Useful links.

Want to test, or give suggestions on our WindowsUtils PowerShell module? Check out Windows Utils.

See what I’m up to.