The C++/WinRT query_interface_tearoff extension point, and using it for COM aggregation

Raymond

The C++/WinRT library’s implements template does the heavy lifting of implementing COM classes. One of the extension points is a method called query_interface_tearoff. This method is called as part of the implementation of the IUnknown::Query­Interface method if the caller is asking for an interface that wasn’t declared as part of the implements type parameter list. This gives you a chance to support additional interfaces.

From its name, it’s apparent that the primary use case for this is COM tear-off interfaces. But you can use it for any scenario where you want to support an interface that you didn’t list in your implements. For example, the interface might be dynamically-generated. But today we’re going to use it for COM aggregation.

Let’s say that we want to aggregate the free-threaded marshaler. Yes, I know that C++/WinRT does this automatically, but let’s do it manually just to show how it’s done.

struct MyFreeThreaded :
    winrt::implements<MyFreeThreaded, ::IAgileObject, winrt::non_agile>
{
  winrt::IUnknown m_ftm;

  MyFreeThreaded()
  {
    winrt::check_hresult(CoCreateFreeThreadedMarshaler(this, m_ftm.put()));
  }

  int32_t query_interface_tearoff(winrt::guid const& id, void** object)
        const noexcept override
  {
    if (id == winrt::guid_of<::IMarshal>()) {
      return m_ftm.as(id, object);
    }
    return E_NOINTERFACE;
  }
};

The My­Free­Threaded object implements IAgile­Object, which is a marker interface for free-threaded objects. It also uses the winrt::non_agile marker to tell C++/WinRT not to implement free-threading support for this object. Because we’re about to do it manually!

We declare a member variable m_ftm which holds the free-threaded marshaler. At construction we create the free-threaded marshaler passing ourselves as the controlling unknown. This makes the free-threaded marshaler act as if it were part of our object, and it will forward all interface requests back to the main object. However, the IUnknown produced by Co­Create­Free­Threaded­Marshaler is a special one that does not delegate its IUnknown::Query­Interface method. This lets you access the interfaces of the aggregated object. (Without it, any attempt to obtain an interface from the aggregated object would just be forwarded back to the outer object.)

To complete the circle, we forward requests for IMarshal into the free-threaded marshaler by overriding query_interface_tearoff. That way, if somebody asks for IMarshal—and by somebody I mean COM itself—we forward the request into the aggregated object, which says “Free-threaded marshaler at your service!”

An important detail of implementing your own query_interface_tearoff is that you should return E_NOINTERFACE (or forward to the base class) if you don’t handle the interface.

That’s a pretty quick rundown of doing COM aggregation in C++/WinRT. It’ll come in handy in a few months.

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