The macros for declaring COM interfaces, revisited: C++ version

Raymond Chen

Last time, we looked at the macros for declaring COM interfaces and how they expand when compiled for C.

When compiled as C++, the macros do something entirely different.

/* DECLARE_INTERFACE_IID_(ISample2, ISample, "...") */
struct __declspec(uuid("5675B786-7BAC-4EA2-A020-F4E7A15E2073"))
       ISample2 : public ISample
    virtual void a() {} // only on PowerPC

    // *** IUnknown methods ***
    /* STDMETHOD(QueryInterface)(THIS_ REFIID riid, void **ppv) PURE; */
    virtual __declspec(nothrow) HRESULT __stdcall
        QueryInterface(REFIID riid, void** ppv) = 0;

    virtual __declspec(nothrow) ULONG __stdcall AddRef(void) = 0;

    /* STDMETHOD_(ULONG,Release)(THIS) PURE; */
    virtual __declspec(nothrow) ULONG __stdcall Release(void) = 0;

    // ** ISample methods ***
    /* STDMETHOD(Method1)(THIS) PURE; */
    virtual __declspec(nothrow) HRESULT __stdcall Method1(void) = 0;

    /* STDMETHOD_(int, Method2)(THIS) PURE; */
    virtual __declspec(nothrow) HRESULT __stdcall Method2(void) = 0;

    // *** ISample2 methods ***
    /* STDMETHOD(Method3)(THIS_ int iParameter) PURE; */
    virtual __declspec(nothrow) HRESULT __stdcall Method3(int iParameter) = 0;

    /* STDMETHOD_(int, Method4)(THIS_ int iParameter) PURE; */
    virtual __declspec(nothrow) int __stdcall Method4(int iParameter) = 0;


The DECLARE_INTERFACE macros declare a structure that consists solely of pure virtual methods. If you use the DECLARE_INTERFACE_ version, you can specify a base interface. You will pretty much always use this two-parameter version, since you need to derive from IUnknown if nothing else.

The __declspec(uuid(...)) specifier enables the use of __uuidof to auto-generate a GUID when you write __uuidof(ISample2). This is very handy for macros like IID_PPV_ARGS which automatically pass the interface GUID that corresponds to the macro parameter, thereby avoiding errors due to mismatches.

Normally, C++ objects change identity during construction and destruction, which means that constructing the interface object involves setting up a vtable filled with __purecall entries, only to have that vtable be immediately overwritten when the derived class is constructed. Similarly, at destruction, the vtable regresses from the derived class’s vtable to the __purecall vtable when destruction reaches the interface object.

The __declspec(novtable) specifier tells the compiler not to bother setting up the vtable for this class during construction and destruction, because the class promises not to call any of its own virtual methods during constructor or destruction. (Vacuously true for interfaces because they have trivial constructors and destructors.) The novtable specifier avoids the code needed to set up the vtables as well as not needing to produce a vtable in the first place.

Related: The sad history of Visual Studio’s custom __if_exists keyword.

As we learned last time, the BEGIN_INTERFACE macro usually does nothing, but on PowerPC, it generates an extra dummy entry in the vtable for reasons lost to history.

The STDMETHOD macro generates the method declaration. The method is virtual, as you would expect. It also is marked __declspec(nothrow), which is a promise that calling the method will not throw an exception. There is no enforcement of this promise; if you break the rules and allow an exception to escape, then the behavior is undefined. COM methods are not allowed to throw exceptions, so this annotation is accurate, assuming everybody plays by the rules.

Related: The sad history of the C++ throw(…) exception specifier.

The PURE expands to = 0 for C++, which makes it a pure virtual method.

Related: COM interfaces do not implement their own pure virtual methods, even though the language permits it.

The rest is fairly straightforward. The THIS and THIS_ macros expand to nothing; they exist to keep C happy.

Every macro in this entire sequence does something, either in C or C++. Well, with the exception of END_INTERFACE, which nobody has yet to find a use for. But it’s there just in case.¹

Next time, we’ll look at the implementation macros.

¹ For example, it might be used to declare an explicitly nonvirtual destructor, should the C++ language someday decide to make destructors virtual by default in polymorphic classes.


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  • Alexis Ryan 0

    BEGIN_INTERFACE on powerPC seems very strange as the c++ version adds an extra function while the c version adds a pointer surely for that extra function in the c++ version to keep things consistent. guessing the compiler doesn’t store a normal function pointer for the first virtual function in the vtable so COM has to skip it or something .

  • MGetz 0

    I’ve gotten in the habit of marking interface implementation methods as noexcept for that exact undefined behavior reason. I’d rather the application terminate than risk anything happening. The classic “If you don’t control the caller don’t throw an exception across that ABI boundary” issue you’ve covered before.

    • GL 0

      This only saves you from your own code. If you call into another COM object that lets an exception escape, all bets are off.

      Nit-picking the main post: The destructor for a polymorphic class is never “trivial” per current C++ definition, though I don’t see any harm in relaxing that requirement (identity downgrading is not observable if the destructor doesn’t call virtual members).

      Question: Why can’t Visual C++ automatically detect a class whose virtual members are all pure and apply __declspec(novtable) to it? It doesn’t seem to hurt compiling performance too much.

      • MGetz 0

        I can’t fix other’s bad code, but I can make sure I don’t contribute to the problem. Hence why I do what I do. Letting an exception fly across most ABI boundaries is very explicitly undefined behavior anyway even if both parts are C++ as they could be using different runtimes. At the end of the day with exceptions everybody needs to be in on it for them to work without issues.

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