Windows Runtime delegates and object lifetime in C# and other GC languages

Raymond Chen

In C# and other GC languages such as JavaScript, delegates (most typically used as event handlers) capture strong references to objects in their closures. This means that you can create reference cycles that are beyond the ability of the GC to collect.

using Windows.Devices.Enumeration;

class Circular
  DeviceWatcher watcher;

  public Circular()
    watcher = DeviceInformation.CreateWatcher();
    watcher.Added += OnDeviceAdded;

  void OnDeviceAdded(DeviceWatcher sender, DeviceInformation info)

The Circular class contains a reference to a Device­Watcher, which in turn contains a reference (via the delegate) back to the Circular. This circular reference will never be collected because one of the participants is a DeviceWatcher, which is beyond the knowledge of the garbage collector.

From the garbage collector’s point of view, the system looks like this:

? delegate Circular DeviceWatcher

The garbage collector has full knowledge of the green boxes “delegate” and “Circular” because they are CLR objects. The garbage collector does not know about the dotted-line boxes because they are external objects beyond the scope of the CLR.

What the garbage collector knows is that there is an outstanding reference to the delegate from some unknown external source, and it knows that that delegate has a reference to the Circular object, and it knows that the Circular object has a reference to some external object that goes by the name of Device­Watcher. but it has no insight into what the Device­Watcher object may have references to, because the Device­Watcher is not a CLR object. It has no idea that the Device­Watcher was in fact the question mark the whole time.¹

To avoid a memory leak, you will have to break this circular reference. Ideally, there is some natural place to do this cleanup. For example, if you are a Page, you can clean up in your On­Navigated­From method, or in response to the Unloaded event. Less ideally, you could add a cleanup method, possibly codified in the IDisposable pattern.

There is a special case: The XAML framework has a secret deal with the CLR, whereby XAML shares more detailed information about the references it holds. This information makes it possible for the CLR to break certain categories of circular references that are commonly-encounted in XAML code. For example, this circular reference can be detected by the CLR with the assistance of information provided by the XAML framework:

<!-- XAML -->
<Page x:Name="AwesomePage" ...>
  <Button x:Name="SomeNamedButton" ... >

// C# code-behind
partial class AwesomePage : Page
    SomeNamedButton.Click += SomeNamedButton_Click;

  void SomeNamedButton_Click(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)

There is a circular reference here between the Awesome­Page and the Some­Named­Button, but the extra information provided by the XAML framework gives the CLR enough information to recognize the cycle and collect it when it becomes garbage.

¹ “It was the question mark all along” sounds like the spoiler to a bad M. Night Shyamalan movie.


Discussion is closed. Login to edit/delete existing comments.

  • Christian Wulff 0

    Do you mean that Circular and DeviceWatcher will never be cleaned up, even when there are no external references to it? I always thought that the GC would look at the root objects of the application and clean up every object which can not be referenced by a root object or a local variable (at least in the classic .net framework). That way it should be able to remove circular references which can’t be referenced by “alive” objects.

    • Piotr Siódmak 0

      One of them might be pinned (by virtue of having underlying native resources)

    • Alexander Zhuravlev 0

      I agree, there is some critical piece of information missing from this article.

    • Raymond ChenMicrosoft employee 0

      The DeviceWatcher is not a CLR object, so the GC doesn’t have insight into it. The GC doesn’t know what objects DeviceWatcher has references to. I updated the article to clarify.

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