Bing Ads Campaign Platform – Journey to .NET 6
The campaign platform component of Microsoft’s search advertising platform is central to delivering a great experience to our advertising platform users. It supports millions of advertisers, providing the engine under the hood allowing them to create ad campaigns that reach customers with maximum impact.
In a given second this platform will process thousands of web requests, with a typical latency of under 100 milliseconds for a given request.
Behind the scenes, dozens of distributed services work in concert to support all of the rich functionality provided by the platform.
Getting here, however, was quite the journey!
In the rest of this blog post we will look at the multi-year journey we undertook to move this codebase to .NET 6, along with the challenges we faced and how we ultimately solved them.
Note: the re-branding from “.NET Core” to simply “.NET” sometimes leads to some confusion over whether we are discussing .NET Framework or what was previously known as .NET Core. In this post, “.NET” generally refers to the latter and if we are referring to .NET Framework that will be spelled out explicitly.
Overview of the codebase
We have a fairly large amount of code. To give a bit of context, the git repo that houses the middle tier code for our campaign platform contains over 600 C# projects.
Breaking down the code:
So, more than 7 million lines of C# code and more than 8 million lines total. Counting lines of code does not tell you everything about a codebase, but it does give a rough idea of the relative size we are dealing with.
Over those 600+ csproj instances, we reference more than 500 distinct NuGet packages. That many dependencies had an impact on the process of migrating to .NET, as we will see.
Our starting point
Our services have evolved a lot over the years and the underlying technology used to host them has changed dramatically. Originally hosted entirely on-premise with our own physical hardware sitting in racks in data-centers that we had to maintain, our team followed much of the rest of the industry by eventually embracing the cloud.
The migration to Azure is a story in itself, but the legacy of the original hosting environment has an impact on where we were when we started our .NET migration: traditionally we had run our code on Windows servers, hosting our web services in IIS.
While we had previously migrated to Azure, we had simply done a “lift and shift” from running on our own hardware to running on Windows VMs in the cloud.
All of our code was at the time targeting the original Windows-only .NET Framework and when we started contemplating migrating to .NET we were running on .NET Framework version 4.6.
Why the new .NET?
Why did we choose to expend the engineering effort to migrate away from .NET Framework and onto the open source .NET? After all, this was not a small effort – it took more than two years to accomplish the bulk of the work.
There were multiple reasons that our team specifically called out after an initial investigation into .NET:
Moving to a cross-platform solution had an obvious benefit: freeing us from being inextricably tied to the Windows operating system would give us the potential to explore if we would be better served running on alternatives such as Linux.
Unlike some other teams at Microsoft, we did not always intend to move to something like AKS running on Linux containers. We were, however, very interested in exploring that as a possibility.
Future of .NET Development
It was clear when we started our migration journey that .NET was the future. All of the really exciting innovations in the runtime to support high performance computing were happening there, not on .NET Framework, and high performance is one of our main requirements.
We also considered it very important that we give the developers on our team the best possible tools for the job. At the time, some features of C# 8 were already only available on .NET and that situation would become more common for future versions of the language.
It was also known that .NET Framework 4.8 was planned to be the last version. Sticking with it was a technological dead-end.
Less friction for innovation
.NET being developed as an independent open source project means that it can iterate at a much faster cadence than the traditional .NET Framework, improvements to which are burdened by the costs associated with being part of Windows. That means we get improvements and new features much more quickly.
Microsoft’s embrace of open source has been inspiring and having your underlying tech stack being developed out in the open has many benefits. GitHub issues provide a simple and convenient mechanism to report problems, request features or get feedback from the development team.
The ability to contribute back fixes and improvements is also highly appealing.
Much better tooling
The .NET team clearly took a hard look at some of the major pain points for .NET developers. Not only did they throw out a variety of “seemed like a good idea at the time” features that ultimately caused more trouble than they solved (multiple app domains and .NET remoting come to mind), they dramatically improved the tooling used for a developers ‘inner loop’.
The dotnet CLI tooling that allows you to easily accomplish many tasks without even needing an IDE has improved productivity a lot, especially for developers who enjoy working from the terminal.
The much-simplified project format where sensible defaults are used everywhere and source code files are implicitly included was a huge quality-of-life improvement. Refactoring source code files among projects went from a huge chore to being nearly painless.
Additionally, .NET mercifully brought a solution to the nightmare of diamond dependency issues between projects. These often caused the need to add binding redirects that were hard to get right across all of our many projects and were often only discovered at runtime. .NET solved the problem by simply getting rid of binding redirects entirely.
Our conversion process
Our eventual migration process can be summarized as:
For class libraries, we followed the following overall path:
.NET Framework 4.6 -> .NET Framework 4.7 -> .NET Standard 2.0
For our actual services and applications, the process looked like this:
.NET Framework 4.6 -> .NET Framework 4.7 -> .NET Core 3.1 -> .NET 5 -> .NET 6
There was absolutely no way we were going to be able to convert all of our code to .NET in one shot. Our codebase churns constantly so the idea of forking the repo and doing all of the conversion work there was considered and quickly discarded.
We needed to be able to do the work iteratively, over time, and that’s where .NET Standard came in.
As the diagram shows, a library targeting the subset of APIs supported by .NET Standard can be consumed by both .NET Framework projects and .NET projects. The vast majority of our code consists of class libraries – the hundreds of DLLs (assemblies) produced by most of our C# projects. If those could easily be converted to .NET Standard we could continue to consume them from our existing .NET Framework services, then iteratively convert those to .NET for testing and eventual deployment.
(Narrator: they were not easily converted to .NET Standard.)
Converting all of our projects first from .NET Framework 4.6 to 4.7 was actually forced on us by the fact that .NET Framework 4.6 did not fully support .NET Standard. We ended up trying for weeks to get .NET Standard libraries to successfully be consumed by our existing 4.6 projects, but ran into issue after issue. The truth is that .NET Standard, while advertised to work with 4.6, really did not work correctly until 4.7.
Ultimately we were able to convert the majority of our code to .NET Standard 2.0 but there were…challenges.
We hit many, many issues attempting to convert hundreds of projects to .NET Standard. Remember those 500 NuGet package references? What happens when you convert a project to .NET Standard that depends on a NuGet package that in turn targets .NET 4.6? That won’t build – a .NET Standard library can only depend on other .NET Standard libraries. So you have to find a new version of the NuGet package that supports .NET Standard 2.0.
Many times, those packages were much newer than the old ones our code had been relying on for years.
They would have breaking changes. To use one example, we relied heavily on an old Dependency Injection framework called Unity (not to be confused with the Unity game engine.) The available version that supported .NET Standard had had its API completely rewritten and we had to update tens of thousands of lines of code to be compatible with the changes.
Often, no such package even existed.
Binding redirect hell
One particularly insidious problem that we encountered constantly and which lead to countless hours of work attempting to wrestle into submission was the problem of binding redirects. For a variety of reasons, things like the AutoGenerateBindingRedirects property did not always solve this problem in our codebase and we had to continually add new binding redirects to the configuration files for our services.
Ultimately, we had to find ways to help solve the constant diamond dependency conflicts so we could make progress.
Another problem that was particularly painful for the campaign platform conversion was our heavy reliance on WCF. We have over 45 services built on top of WCF, constituting a significant portion of the code that would benefit from the higher performance of using .NET.
For better or worse, in the .NET community SOAP-based services and, somewhat by extension, WCF, had become persona non grata. The prevailing sentiment is that REST-based services were the future and at first the path forward for WCF in .NET was not clear – Microsoft was considering leaving it as a deprecated, .NET Framework-only technology.
This was not going to work for our team, as we had countless existing customers who had built heavily on top of these WCF services and used our SDKs to call them directly. Telling our paying customers they were going to have to rewrite all of their client code using something new like gRPC was not an acceptable answer.
Spoiler alert: we were, in the end, able to solve all of these problems and successfully migrate to .NET 6. It was not always easy, however.
Incompatible NuGet dependencies
Handling the problem of missing or incompatible NuGet packages took time, but ultimately we were able to solve all such issues.
In a number of cases we had to get creative and essentially “repackage” an existing NuGet package that was no longer supported, changing it to claim it supported .NET Standard even when the actual assembly was some old .NET 4.6 binary. We would publish these modified packages to our own internal package feed to unblock our migration.
In a few cases we ended up decompiling old, no-longer-maintained packages for which no source code existed, and updated them to be .NET Standard compatible (for instance, removing use of features that only exist on Windows.) We would patch up the decompiled code and then, again, make a new version of the package.
Binding redirect issues
Moving from the packages.config mechanism used in .NET Framework to the new PackageReference mechanism used in the newer SDK tooling favored by .NET was a major factor in finally getting the diamond dependency / binding redirect problem under control.
We decided to convert everything in our tree to the new SDK style format that supported PackageReference. When you have 600+ C# projects, this is a non-trivial undertaking.
Luckily, there are tools to help with this. I have a personal blog post showing how we did it.
Subsequently, the .NET team released the try-convert tool to accomplish much the same thing.
Once the large effort of converting all projects to the new SDK format was accomplished, another technique that helped untangle the gnarled web of package dependencies was to move to centralized package versioning.
This forced all projects to use the same version of any referenced NuGet packages, with the version being specified in a single central location instead of at the granularity of each individual project. This greatly simplified moving to newer versions of NuGet packages that would allow moving to .NET. The centralized package version can be overridden if necessary, so there is no significant downside to setting this up.
Ultimately, Microsoft decided to produce a limited subset of WCF that targeted .NET. This subset, which primarily focuses on SOAP-based web services, was then donated to the community as the open source CoreWCF project.
CoreWCF uses entirely new namespaces for the many existing types that came from the System.ServiceModel namespace of traditional WCF, so converting an existing service is not exactly trivial. Also, we had common code used so extensively in our codebase that we needed to support running that code in both CoreWCF services and .NET Framework services while we were in the process of converting.
We ultimately used multi-targeting to accomplish this.
(Incidentally, a tricky problem resulting from multi-targeting caused by a top-level exception handler led to perhaps the only time I have resorted to using the dynamic keyword in C# without feeling guilty about it.)
We worked extensively with the extremely helpful Matt Connew (a primary contributor to CoreWCF) to get our services ported, and while it was not an entirely smooth transition, ultimately CoreWCF worked great as an alternative to rewriting our services to use something other than SOAP.
If you need to host a SOAP service and you want the high performance that comes with running on .NET 6, CoreWCF is a great answer.
Was all of the effort put into migrating to .NET 6 ultimately worth it? Absolutely!
The benefits we had outlined at the start of our journey all proved to be true and then some.
This graph shows the improvement in latency for one of our services that resulted simply from changing it to target .NET and recompiling.
You can tell where in the time axis we flipped to the new service running as .NET.
That was without even attempting to optimize anything using the great new features available in .NET. That was just recompiling and getting the advantage of the many runtime improvements made by the .NET team.
Here is another example where we looked at the memory usage both before and after moving to Core WCF for another service:
We achieved a 40 to 50 percent reduction in memory usage simply by making the change to .NET.
Modern cloud service infrastructure
In addition to these clear performance wins, getting onto .NET opened up the opportunity for us to migrate off of IIS and Windows and onto Kestrel servers running inside of containers on Linux, hosted in AKS.
All of the modern tooling and resources available to manage and configure cloud services (such as Kubernetes) are now available to us. Our engineers get to use well supported, industry standard tooling instead of the proprietary, internal systems that had developed over time inside Microsoft to manage our custom, non-standard hosting and deployment infrastructure.
This ability to now use industry best practices technology to continue to evolve our platform is a huge win for everyone.
Performance anecdote – hackathon
While not directly related to the Campaign Platform service migration, two devs from the Campaign Platform team (myself and a colleague) participated in Microsoft’s annual hackathon and got a chance to showcase how with good design and using high-performance techniques, you can achieve impressive performance metrics.
The project involved optimizing the calculation of how similar two 64-byte buffers were to each other, based on how many two-bit pairs were identical. (This has applications in anti-malware research.)
As you can see, the distributed cloud service we built on top of .NET 6 can check almost a billion 64-byte buffers totaling close to 60 GiB of data in 40 to 60 milliseconds.
Not too shabby!
Migrating to .NET 6 was a large and at times painful engineering effort. It was worth it in the end and going forward our team is looking forward to the continued improvements to .NET as it evolves.
For others planning to migrate a large existing .NET Framework codebase to .NET 6 and beyond, lessons learned from our experience can be applied:
Get all existing code onto .NET 4.7 or 4.8 first
Migrate all projects to the new SDK format so they are using PackageReference before doing anything else.
Use .NET Standard as a bridge to allow sharing library code between both .NET Framework and .NET projects while migration is in progress.
Use centralized package references to greatly ease the transition to newer NuGet packages.
Moving forward post-migration, we are looking forward to really drilling into some of the new features in .NET that will allow us to take our code to the next level.
Here is just one instance of such a feature: finding places we can use Span\<T> to reduce heap allocations and improve performance. For example, our code has places where we check if two byte buffers are identical. Instead of looping over each byte and testing for equality we can make use of the highly optimized SequenceEqual method:
As this benchmark shows, this is close to 25 times faster than the naïve approach!
Rewriting some of our code to specifically take advantage of new language and runtime features like this is going to continue to be a fun and highly rewarding exercise as we move forward.