Async ValueTask Pooling in .NET 5

Stephen Toub - MSFT

The async/await feature in C# has revolutionized how developers targeting .NET write asynchronous code. Sprinkle some async and await around, change some return types to be tasks, and badda bing badda boom, you’ve got an asynchronous implementation. In theory.

In practice, obviously I’ve exaggerated the ease with which a codebase can be made fully asynchronous, and as with many a software development task, the devil is often in the details. One such “devil” that performance-minded .NET developers are likely familiar with is the state machine object that enables an async method to perform its magic.

State Machines and Allocations

When you write an async method in C#, the compiler rewrites that method into a state machine, where the bulk of your code in your async method is moved into a MoveNext method on a compiler-generated type (a struct in Release builds), and with that MoveNext method littered with jumps and labels that enable the method to suspend and resume at await points. An await‘d incomplete tasks has a continuation (a callback) hooked up to it that, upon the task’s eventual completion, calls back to the MoveNext method and jumps to the location where the function was suspended. In order for local variables to maintain their state across these method exits and re-entrances, relevant “locals” are rewritten by the compiler to be fields on the state machine type. And in order for that state machine as a struct to persist across those same suspensions, it needs to be moved to the heap.

The C# compiler and the .NET runtime try hard to avoid putting that state machine on the heap. Many async method invocations actually complete synchronously, and the compiler and runtime are tuned to that use case. As noted, in Release builds the state machine generated by the compiler is a struct, and when an async method is invoked, the state machine starts its life on the stack. If the async method completes without ever suspending, the state machine will happily complete having never caused an allocation. However, if the async method ever needs to suspend, the state machine needs to somehow be promoted to the heap.

In .NET Framework, the moment a Task– or ValueTask-returning async method (both generic and non-generic) suspends for the first time, several allocations occur:

  1. The state machine struct is copied to the heap via standard runtime boxing; every state machine implements the IAsyncStateMachine interface, and the runtime literally casts the struct to this interface, resulting in an allocation.

  2. The runtime captures the current ExecutionContext, and then allocates an object (it calls this a “runner”) that it uses to store both the boxed state machine and the ExecutionContext (note, too, that in the .NET Framework, capturing ExecutionContext when it’s not the default also results in one or more allocations).

  3. The runtime allocates an Action delegate that points to a method on that runner object, because the awaiter pattern requires an Action that can be passed to the awaiter’s {Unsafe}OnCompleted method; when invoked, the Action will use the captured ExecutionContext to invoke the MoveNext method on the state machine.

  4. The runtime allocates a Task object that will be completed when the async method completes and that’s returned from the async method to its synchronous caller (if the async method is typed to return a ValueTask, the ValueTask struct is just wrapped around the Task object).

That’s at least four allocations when an async method suspends for the first time. On top of that, every subsequent time the async method suspends, if we find ourselves with a non-default ExecutionContext (e.g. it’s carrying state for an AsyncLocal<T>), the runtime re-allocates that runner object and then re-allocates the Action that points to it (because delegates are immutable), for at least two additional allocations each time the async method suspends after the first time. Here’s a simple repro of that in Visual Studio, with the right window showing allocations as profiled by the .NET Object Allocation Tracking tool:

Async Allocations in .NET Framework

This has been improved significantly for .NET Core, in particular as of .NET Core 2.1. When an async method suspends, a Task is allocated. But it’s not of the base Task or Task<TResult> type. Instead, it’s of an internal AsyncStateMachineBox<TStateMachine> type that derives from Task. The state machine struct is stored in a strongly-typed field on this derived type, eliminating the need for a separate boxing allocation. This type also has a field for the captured ExecutionContext (which is immutable in .NET Core, which means capturing one never allocates), which means we don’t need a separate runner object. And the runtime now has special code paths that support passing this AsyncStateMachineBox<TStateMachine> type directly through to all awaiters the runtime knows about, which means that as long as an async method only ever awaits Task, Task<TResult>, ValueTask, or ValueTask<TResult> (either directly or via their ConfigureAwait counterparts), it needn’t allocate an Action delegate at all. Then, since we have direct access to the ExecutionContext field, subsequent suspensions don’t require allocating a new runner (runners are gone entirely), which also means even if we did need to allocate an Action, we don’t need to re-allocate it. That means, whereas in .NET Framework we have at least four allocations for the first suspension and often at least two allocations for each subsequent suspension, in .NET Core we have one allocation for the first suspension (worst case two, if custom awaiters are used), and that’s it. Other changes, such as a rewrite to the ThreadPool‘s queueing infrastructure, also significantly decreased allocations.

Async Allocations in .NET Core 3.1

That change has had a very measurable impact on performance (and, as it happens, on more than just performance; it’s also very beneficial for debugging), and we can all rejoice in seeing unnecessary allocations removed. However, as noted, one allocation still remains when an async method completes asynchronously. But… what if we could get rid of that last one, too? What if we could make it so that invoking an async method had (amortized) zero-allocation overhead, regardless of whether it completed synchronously or asynchronously?


ValueTask<TResult> was introduced in the .NET Core 1.0 timeframe to help developers avoid allocations when async methods complete synchronously. It was a relatively simple struct representing a discriminated union between a TResult and a Task<TResult>. When used as the result type of an async method, if an invocation of the async method returns synchronously, regardless of the value of the TResult result, the method incurs zero allocations of overhead: the state machine doesn’t need to be moved to the heap, and no Task<TResult> need be allocated for the result; the result value is simply stored into the TResult field of the returned ValueTask<TResult>. However, if the async method completes asynchronously, the runtime falls back to behaving just as it would with Task<TResult>: it produces the single AsyncStateMachineBox<TStateMachine> task, which is then wrapped in the returned ValueTask<TResult> struct.

In .NET Core 2.1, we introduced the IValueTaskSource<TResult> interface, along with non-generic counterparts ValueTask and IValueTaskSource. We also made ValueTask<TResult> capable of storing not just a TResult and a Task<TResult>, but also an IValueTaskSource<TResult> (same for the non-generic ValueTask, which could store a Task or an IValueTaskSource). This advanced interface allows an enterprising developer to write their own backing store for the value task, and they can do so in a way that allows them to reuse that backing store object for multiple non-concurrent operations (much more information on this is available in this blog post. For example, an individual Socket is generally used for no more than one receive operation and one send operation at a time. Socket was modified to store a reusable/resettable IValueTaskSource<int> for each direction, and each consecutive read or write operation that completes asynchronously hands out a ValueTask<int> backed by the appropriate shared instance. This means that in the vast majority of cases, the ValueTask<int>-based ReceiveAsync/SendAsync methods on Socket end up being non-allocating, regardless of whether they complete synchronously or asynchronously. A handful of types got this treatment, but only where we knew it would be impactful because the types were often used on high-throughput code paths, we knew we could do it in a way where it would pretty much always be a win (often performance optimizations come with trade-offs), and we knew it would be worth the painstaking effort it would take to effectively implement these interfaces.

As such, a handful of implementations were added in .NET Core 2.1 in key areas, like System.Net.Sockets, System.Threading.Channels, and System.IO.Pipelines, but not much beyond that. We subsequently introduced the ManualResetValueTaskSource<TResult> type to make such implementations easier, and as a result more implementations of these interfaces were added in .NET Core 3.0 and also in .NET 5, though mostly as internal implementation details within various components, like System.Net.Http.

.NET 5 Improvements

In .NET 5, we’re experimenting with taking this optimization much further. With .NET 5 Preview 1, if prior to your process running you set the DOTNET_SYSTEM_THREADING_POOLASYNCVALUETASKS environment variable to either true or 1, the runtime will use state machine box objects that implement the IValueTaskSource and IValueTaskSource<TResult> interfaces, and it will pool the objects it creates to back the instances returned from async ValueTask or async ValueTask<TResult> methods. So, if as in the earlier example you repeatedly invoke the same method and await its result, each time you’ll end up getting back a ValueTask that, under the covers, is wrapping the exact same object, simply reset each time to enable it to track another execution. Magic.

Async Allocations in .NET 5

Why isn’t it just on by default right now? Two main reasons:

  1. Pooling isn’t free. There are a variety of ways allocations can be eliminated by a developer looking to optimize their code. One is to simply improve the code to no longer need the allocation; from a performance perspective, this is generally very low risk. Another is to reuse an existing object already readily available, such as by adding an additional field to some existing object with a similar lifespan; this likely requires more performance analysis, but is still often a clear win. Then comes pooling. Pooling can be very beneficial when it’s really expensive to construct the thing being pooled; a good example of this is with HTTPS connection pooling, where the cost of establishing a new secure connection is generally orders of magnitude more expensive than accessing one in even the most naïve of pooling data structures. The more controversial form of pooling is when the pool is for cheaply constructed objects, with the goal of avoiding garbage collection costs. In employing such a pool, the developer is betting that they can implement a custom allocator (which is really what a pool is) that’s better than the general-purpose GC allocator. Beating the GC is not trivial. But, a developer might be able to, given knowledge they have of their specific scenario. For example, the .NET GC is very good at efficiently collecting short-lived objects, those that become collectible in generation 0, and attempting to pool such objects can easily make a program more expensive (even if doing so looks good on a microbenchmark focused on measuring allocation). But if you know that your objects are likely to survive gen0, such as if they’re used to represent potentially long-latency asynchronous operations, it’s possible a custom pool could shave off some overhead. We haven’t made this async ValueTask pooling the default yet because, while it looks good on microbenchmarks, we’re not sure it’s actually a meaningful improvement on real-world workloads.

  2. ValueTasks have constraints. The Task and Task<TResult> types were designed to be very robust. You can cache them. You can await them any number of times. They support multiple continuations. They’re thread-safe, with any number of threads able to concurrently register continuations. And in addition to being awaitable and supporting asynchronous completion notifications, they also support a blocking model, with synchronous callers able to wait for a result to be available. None of that holds for ValueTask and ValueTask<TResult>. Because they might be backed by resettable IValueTaskSource instances, you mustn’t cache them (the thing they wrap might get reused) nor await them multiple times. You mustn’t try to register multiple continuations (after the first completes the object might try to reset itself for another operation), whether concurrently or not. And you mustn’t try to block waiting for them to complete (IValueTaskSource implementations need not provide such semantics). As long as callers directly await the result of calling a method that returns a ValueTask or ValueTask<TResult>, everything should work well, but the moment someone steps off that golden path, things can go awry quickly; that could mean getting exceptions, or it could mean corruption in the process. Further, these complications generally only present themselves when the ValueTask or ValueTask<TResult> wraps an IValueTaskSource implementation; when they wrap a Task, things typically “just work”, as the ValueTask inherits Task‘s robustness, and when they wrap a raw result value, the constraints technically don’t apply at all. And that means that by switching async ValueTask methods from being backed by Tasks as they are today to instead being backed by these pooled IValueTaskSource implementations, we could be exposing latent bugs in a developer’s app, either directly or via libraries they consume. An upcoming release of the Roslyn Analyzers will include an analyzer that should help find most misuse.

Call to Action

This is where you come in. If you have an application you think would benefit from this pooling, we’d love to hear from you. Download .NET 5 Preview 1. Try turning on the feature. Does anything break, and if so, in your code, or in another library, or in .NET itself? And do you see measurable performance wins, whether measured as throughput or latency or working set or anything else of interest? Note that the change only affects async ValueTask and async ValueTask<TResult> methods, so if you have async Task or async Task<TResult> methods, you might also need to experiment with first changing those to use their ValueTask equivalents.

Issue dotnet/runtime#13633 is tracking our figuring out what we should do with this feature for .NET 5, and we’d love to hear from you; we’d welcome you posting any thoughts or results there.

Thanks in advance for any feedback, and happy pooling!


Discussion is closed. Login to edit/delete existing comments.

  • Shyam Sundar B 0

    Good post!

    I think there is a typo here –> “are the state machines objects the enable async”.
    I think it should be “are the state machines objects that enable async”

    • Stephen Toub 0

      Thanks! Fixed.

  • Mike-E 0

    On one hand, the current .NET asynchronous model allows for Mr. Toub to write such amazingly detailed and thorough articles. Prolific! On the other hand, one is required to read such detailed and thorough articles to get a handle on the topic, one that indeed contains many details and — shall I dare say? — devils. 😏

    The investment is real.

    A kind reminder to vote to improve the .NET asynchronous programming model here, one without so much devil and detail. 😁

    👆 Currently the 4th-rated feature request in the .NET Developer Community Forums. 👆

    Thank you to all who have voted and continue to support an improved .NET!

    • Stephen Toub 0

      This blog post is about internal implementation details, highlighting aspects we’ve improved and are experimenting with and asking for feedback at that level; it is not “required to get a handle on the topic”. As such, the above comment isn’t relevant to the post; it’s just using something only tangentially related to try to drive traffic to something else you’re interested in. It’s also linking to a “feature request” that is unactionable, essentially just saying “here are some things I don’t like, please create a brand new model that doesn’t have these issues”. I appreciate your passion on the subject, but I’d also appreciate it if comments were kept relevant. Thanks.

      • Mike-E 0

        All fair points, Stephen. I appreciate your viewpoint. If you noticed, the same “unactionable” request is also happening with the Ubiquitous .NET vote which is at the top of the feature request list currently as well, just three from the Improve Asynchronous Programming Model vote. When a post is made regarding client/UX concerns on this blog, or even a general discussion made around client development throughout our ecosystem, you usually see a link to that vote and/or the UI standard vote.

        In my view, this is the same difference and it is generally accepted as relevant.

        Seeing on how there are already two additional votes made since I have posted the comment above, I would argue this is a little more relevant than you are giving credit for. Consider further that if the model was improved, then you wouldn’t be having to require feedback on something that shouldn’t be having to design/manage in the first place. In essence, you are requesting feedback on a pile of existing technical debt, and I am saying that if we attack the debt at its source you wouldn’t need to ask feedback on any aspect of it in the first place.

        Hope that makes sense and that you understand my case for relevance here. From my perspective, it is again the same as the Ubiquitous Client Model, which is another gigantic source of technical debt imposed upon our ecosystem.

        To end, I am not speaking just for myself but for those who also agree with me (at least 38 and counting 😁 now) and probably do not want to endure the same attacking/tone/dismissive demeanor that you have presented to me for speaking up and contributing to the community discussion in my own way.

      • Jacob Family 0

        I recognize this pattern of condescending attitude. When a corporate representative talks to its customers like this, a fall is inevitable. It just means that the corporation has stopped listening to its customers and is busily churning out products which they have determined that are good for their (dumb) customers.

  • MgSam 0

    Thanks for the detailed and interesting post!

    You mention improvements on micro-benchmarks- what kind of improvements are we talking about?

    I’ve read a lot about ValueTask over the past few years, but given its many limitations, its always struck me as something of a premature optimization (outside of its usage in the BCL or other libraries with hot-paths). For most applications, the difference in a handful of allocations seems unlikely to make much of a difference. Write correct code first, then profile and optimize only if necessary.

    • Stephen Toub 0

      Thanks, glad you liked it.

      There’s a ton of potential benefit to ValueTask, and in particular ValueTask<T>. Consider a method like Stream.ReadAsync, which very frequently will complete synchronously, whether on a type like MemoryStream where every read completes synchronously, or a type like FileStream or BufferedStream where most reads complete synchronously because of an internal buffer, or a type like DeflateStream or CryptoStream which will complete synchronously if the underlying stream does, or a type like NetworkStream which will complete synchronously if the kernel has data already available for the connection. In such cases, these methods can be called on very hot paths, and avoiding allocating an object each time can definitely be measurable.

      But even for asynchronous completion, the benefit can be very measurable when these things show up on hot paths. With the IValueTaskSource support, we’ve for example made it so that Socket.SendAsync/ReceiveAsync are generally allocation-free, regardless of whether they complete synchronously or asynchronously, as long as you’re using the newer overloads that return ValueTask<T>. You can see the impact of that with a little demo like this:

      using System;
      using System.IO;
      using System.Net;
      using System.Net.Sockets;
      using System.Threading;
      using System.Threading.Tasks;
      class Program
          static async Task Main()
              var listener = new Socket(AddressFamily.InterNetwork, SocketType.Stream, ProtocolType.Tcp);
              var client = new Socket(AddressFamily.InterNetwork, SocketType.Stream, ProtocolType.Tcp);
              listener.Bind(new IPEndPoint(IPAddress.Loopback, 0));
              var server = listener.Accept();
              long count = 0;
              _ = Task.Run(() =>
                  AppDomain.MonitoringIsEnabled = true;
                  while (true)
                      long memBefore = AppDomain.CurrentDomain.MonitoringTotalAllocatedMemorySize;
                      long iterBefore = Volatile.Read(ref count);
                      long iterAfter = Volatile.Read(ref count);
                      long memAfter = AppDomain.CurrentDomain.MonitoringTotalAllocatedMemorySize;
                      Console.WriteLine($"Iterations: {iterAfter - iterBefore:N0}, Bytes: {memAfter - memBefore:N0}");
              var buffer = new ArraySegment<byte>(new byte[1]); // ### 1
              // var buffer = new Memory<byte>(new byte[1]);       // ### 2
              while (true)
                  var r = client.ReceiveAsync(buffer, SocketFlags.None);
                  await server.SendAsync(buffer, SocketFlags.None);
                  await r;

      When I run this with the ### 1 line, I get values like:

      Iterations: 44,317, Bytes: 3,565,944

      whereas when I run it with the ### 2 line, I get values like:

      Iterations: 49,798, Bytes: 0

      so both a throughput improvement and a complete elimination of the allocation overhead. This is also a serialized test, but such allocation reduction has a way of magnifying other improvements on loaded servers.

      We know it’s valuable for cases like that. My comment in this post about microbenchmarks was more about this automatic implementation behind async methods, and as for real-world impact, that’s the point of my asking for folks to try it out 🙂

  • Paulo Enmanuel Tavares 0

    Is there any use case you see developers building their own implementations for IAsyncStateMachine ?

    • Stephen Toub - MSFTMicrosoft employee 0

      IAsyncStateMachine? Nope.

    • Wil Wilder Apaza Bustamante 0

      this comment has been deleted.

  • John Duffy 0

    Are there any plans to make idiomatic Task cancellation less allocation heavy? It seems like everything is controlled through throwing TaskCanceledExceptions. Heap allocation to cancel a Task is one thing but these also require stack trace allocations as well. Are we expected to ignore the built in Task cancellation features entirely if we want to limit or eliminate allocations?

    • Stephen Toub - MSFTMicrosoft employee 0

      There are currently no such plans.

  • Nawfal Hassan 0

    Stephen, great article.. I have had a few questions w.r.t ValueTask/Task in my mind for some time. Before that let me say I am not at all an expert on async/await, I understand only the basics.

    Hoping to get an answer from you on the following:

    A. Will there ever be a point in .NET where ValueTask is preferred over Task always, at least theoretically even if not practical? While I get the advantages of Task over ValueTask currently, threads like these: make me think if there is really any point in using Task anymore in future (I do understand most TPL APIs are written currently against Task but let’s disregard that for a moment). In other words, if MS were to design TPL today, wouldnt ValueTask make more sense given all the advancements today?

    B. Is it, in theory, possible for ValueTask to completely mitigate the “dont await twice” problem, ever? I mean, is it technically possible to design a struct Task in such a way that, there is no problem when awaiting multiple times and each time it returns the same result ?

    C. This is more a practical question – will Task APIs (e.g. Task.WhenAll, Task.WhenAny etc) ever be amended to accept ValueTasks as well? I find those APIs to be too limited now.

    Thanks Stephen.

    • Stephen Toub - MSFTMicrosoft employee 0

      Will there ever be a point in .NET where ValueTask is preferred over Task always

      Always? From my perspective, no.

      Is it, in theory, possible for ValueTask to completely mitigate the “dont await twice” problem, ever?

      If you’re ok allocating, sure. But if the struct is going to wrap a reusable/shared object, then there will always be the possibility for a copy of that struct to refer to the object after it’s already being used by someone else.

      will Task APIs (e.g. Task.WhenAll, Task.WhenAny etc) will ever be amended to accept ValueTasks as well?

      WhenAny: no. WhenAny needs to hook up a continuation to the task, so if you’re only allowed to do that once, you’ve invalidated every value task other than the one that completes first.

      WhenAll: maybe. It’s possible to implement it; I don’t know whether we’d choose to.

      • Nawfal Hassan 0

        Thanks a lot Stephen, answers all my questions.

  • Marcin Balcerzyk 0

    Dear Stephen.
    I used async/await in an IIS10 C#/ASPX website. It receives an image from the remote user, starts a new process (not a task) to run java.exe -jar filename.jar. I understand that for such a thing I cannot use Task.Run() in any form? Java produces some text file within 1-5 minutes. As I cannot a priori know what is the time to produce result, I do not wait to finish the process. This is to free user interface on next ASPX page. The button to calculate results reads numbers from a text file in known folder name, but with unknown filename. Then I tried with async/await method to await the creation of the file with the results of java program/process – this is a deepest process. All was done in ASP .NET 4.5 in Visual Studio 2019. Unfortunately it does not work. There is no error, yet the waiting never finishes, even if the file is created. If I do it without async/await in a do loop all works well, however it is a waste of resources.
    Any comment?

    • David FowlerMicrosoft employee 0

      I understand that for such a thing I cannot use Task.Run() in any form?

      You can use Task.Run but if IIS shuts the process down you never get a chance to potentially shut down gracefully. The equivalent for an ASP.NET (non Core) application is

      This is to free user interface on next ASPX page.

      This is fine if the action is fire and forget, if you want the results and you want to unblock the user interface then you want to use AJAX, not Task.Run/QueueBackgroundWorkItem. Using Task.Run will free up the request, not the user interface per se.

      Unfortunately it does not work. There is no error, yet the waiting never finishes, even if the file is created. If I do it without async/await in a do loop all works well, however it is a waste of resources.

      Can you clarify? Where’s the loop?

  • René Stein 0

    Hello Stephen,
    as always, thanks for the great article.

    I am sure that many applications will benefit from the scenario enabled by the “DOTNET_SYSTEM_THREADING_POOLASYNCVALUETASKS” switch.
    We have TLS 1.3 implementation for many .NET platforms (Compact .Net Framework, .Net 2.0+, MONO, .Net Standard 1.5+ etc.). If you are curious, we have developed own Task-like infrastructure for old platforms. I am using custom awaiters in the custom dataflow that processes TLS records. As mentioned in the article, own awaiter for the Socket Send/Receive operations should be very beneficial for all applications.
    I am sure that Socket operations are not rare exceptions. Custom awaiters, ValueTask, IValueTaskSource and similar constructs are great extensions of the “classic” Task-based asynchrony.

    E.g. every stage in our custom dataflow is backed by its own instance of the (I)AsyncProducerConsumerCollection. Recently I have replaced task-based “consumer” methods by the custom awaiter pattern. As you can probably imagine, an instance of the collection is an awaiter. This change eliminated the allocation of many unneeded Tasks.

    The description of the class reveals the main weakness that is mentioned in your article as well. The programming model with such optimized constructs becomes tricky and is very unintuitive for inexperienced developers.

    /// <summary>
    /// Consumer side of the ManyProducersSingleConsumerCollection offers implementation of the awaiter pattern. Special implementation of the awaiter pattern helps to get rid of many unneeded instances of the <see cref="Task{TResult}"/>.
    /// As the name of the class suggests, this class is suitable for (one or many) producer(s) - ONE consumer scenario.
    /// Only ONE client can call ONE of the TakeAsyncOneConsumer/TakeAsync methods at the same time and await the result.
    /// Multiple simultaneous calls of the TakeAsyncOneConsumer/TakeAsync methods lead to the undefined behavior - usually unexpected exception or a hard to find deadlock.
    /// As a rule of thumb and especially if you are not sure what the previous sentence means for your solution, use the <see cref="SimpleAsyncProducerConsumerCollection{TItem}"/> instead.
    /// </summary>

    • Stephen Toub - MSFTMicrosoft employee 0

      Thanks for sharing!

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