ASP.NET Core updates in .NET 7 Preview 6

Daniel Roth

.NET 7 Preview 6 is now available and includes many great new improvements to ASP.NET Core.

Here’s a summary of what’s new in this preview release:

  • Request decompression middleware
  • Output caching middleware
  • Updates to rate limiting middleware
  • Kestrel support for WebSockets over HTTP/2
  • Kestrel performance improvements on high core machines
  • Support for logging additional request headers in W3CLogger
  • Empty Blazor project templates
  • System.Security.Cryptography support on WebAssembly
  • Blazor custom elements no longer experimental
  • Experimental QuickGrid component for Blazor
  • gRPC JSON transcoding multi-segment parameters
  • MapGroup support for more extension methods

For more details on the ASP.NET Core work planned for .NET 7 see the full ASP.NET Core roadmap for .NET 7 on GitHub.

Get started

To get started with ASP.NET Core in .NET 7 Preview 6, install the .NET 7 SDK.

If you’re on Windows using Visual Studio, we recommend installing the latest Visual Studio 2022 preview. If you’re on macOS, we recommend installing the latest Visual Studio 2022 for Mac preview.

To install the latest .NET WebAssembly build tools, run the following command from an elevated command prompt:

dotnet workload install wasm-tools

Note: Building .NET 6 Blazor projects with the .NET 7 SDK and the .NET 7 WebAssembly build tools is currently not supported. This will be addressed in a future .NET 7 update: dotnet/runtime#65211.

Upgrade an existing project

To upgrade an existing ASP.NET Core app from .NET 7 Preview 5 to .NET 7 Preview 6:

  • Update all Microsoft.AspNetCore.* package references to 7.0.0-preview.6.*.
  • Update all Microsoft.Extensions.* package references to 7.0.0-preview.6.*.

See also the full list of breaking changes in ASP.NET Core for .NET 7.

Request decompression middleware

The request decompression middleware is a new middleware that uses the Content-Encoding HTTP header to automatically identify and decompress requests with compressed content so that the developer of the server does not need to handle this themselves.

The request decompression middleware is added using the UseRequestDecompression extension method on IApplicationBuilder and the AddRequestDecompression extension method for IServiceCollection.

Support for Brotli (br), Deflate (deflate), and GZip (gzip) are included out of the box. Other content encodings can be added by registering a custom decompression provider class, which implements the IDecompressionProvider interface, along with a Content-Encoding header value in RequestDecompressionOptions.

Thanks to @david-acker for contributing this feature!

Output caching middleware

Output caching is a new middleware that helps you store results from your web app and serve them from a cache rather than computing them every time, which improves performance and frees up resources for other activities.

To get started with output caching, use the AddOutputCache extension method on IServiceCollection and the UseOutputCache extension method on IApplicationBuilder.

Once you’ve done so, you can start configuring output caching on your endpoints. Here’s a simple example of using output caching on an endpoint that returns timestamps.

app.MapGet("/notcached", () => DateTime.Now.ToString());

app.MapGet("/cached", () => DateTime.Now.ToString()).CacheOutput();

Requests sent to “/notcached” will see the current time. But the “/cached” endpoint uses the .CacheOutput() extension, so each request to “/cached” after the first one will get a cached response (the time returned will not update after the first request).

There are many more advanced ways to customize output caching. The example below shows how VaryByQuery can be used to control caching based on a query parameter:

// Cached entries will vary by culture, but any other additional query
// is ignored and returns the same cached content.
app.MapGet("/query", () => DateTime.Now.ToString()).CacheOutput(p => p.VaryByQuery("culture"));

With this configuration, the “/query” endpoint will cache its output uniquely per value of the culture parameter. Requests for /query?culture=en will get a cached response and requests for /query?culture=es will get a different cached response.

In addition to varying by query strings, there is also support for varying cached responses by headers (VaryByHeader) or by custom values (VaryByValue).

The output caching middleware has built in protection for some common pitfalls of caching. Imagine the situation where you have a busy web service and you revoke/invalidate a popular cache entry. When that happens, there can be many requests for that entry all at the same time, and because the response is not in the cache at that moment, the server would have to process each of those requests.

Resource locking is a feature of output caching that prevents the server from being overwhelmed by these “cache stampedes”. It does this by only allowing one request for the resource to be processed, while the rest of them wait for the cache entry to be updated. Once that happens, all of the waiting requests can be served from the cache, preventing the server from being inundated by redundant work.

If you’d like to see a more complete example demonstrating these and other features of output caching, take a look at the OutputCachingSample app in the ASP.NET Core repo.

For a deeper dive into the output caching feature, be sure to check out this on-demand session we presented at Build 2022. Note that some of the features/APIs discussed have changed since the talk was recorded.

We plan to continue to add functionality to this middleware, so please let us know what you’d like to see.

Updates to rate limiting middleware

The rate limiting middleware now supports rate limiting on specific endpoints, which can be combined with a global limiter that runs on all requests. Below is a sample that adds a TokenBucketRateLimiter to an endpoint, and uses a global ConcurrencyLimiter:

var coolEndpointName = "coolPolicy";

// Define endpoint limiters and a global limiter.
// coolEndpoint will be limited by a TokenBucket Limiter with a max permit count of 6 and a queue depth of 3.
var options = new RateLimiterOptions()
    .AddTokenBucketLimiter(coolEndpointName, new TokenBucketRateLimiterOptions(3, QueueProcessingOrder.OldestFirst, 6, TimeSpan.FromSeconds(10), 1))

// The global limiter will be a concurrency limiter with a max permit count of 10 and a queue depth of 5.
options.GlobalLimiter = PartitionedRateLimiter.Create<HttpContext, string>(context =>
    {
        return RateLimitPartition.CreateConcurrencyLimiter<string>("globalLimiter", key => new ConcurrencyLimiterOptions(10, QueueProcessingOrder.NewestFirst, 5));
    });
app.UseRateLimiter(options);

app.MapGet("/", () => "Hello World!").RequireRateLimiting(coolEndpointName);

We also support adding custom rate limiting policies through the new AddPolicy methods on RateLimiterOptions.

To learn more about rate limiting with ASP.NET Core, check out the Announcing Rate Limiting for .NET blog post.

Kestrel support for WebSockets over HTTP/2

WebSockets were originally designed for HTTP/1.1 but have since been adapted to work over HTTP/2. Using WebSockets over HTTP/2 lets you take advantage of new features like header compression and multiplexing that reduce the time and resources needed when making multiple requests to the server. That support is now available in Kestrel on all HTTP/2 enabled platforms.

The HTTP version negotiation is automatic in browsers and Kestrel so no new APIs are needed. You can follow the existing ASP.NET Core samples for using WebSockets over HTTP/2. Note HTTP/2 WebSockets use CONNECT requests rather than GET, so your routes and controllers may need updating. Chrome and Edge have HTTP/2 WebSockets enabled by default, and you can enable it in FireFox on the about:config page with the network.http.spdy.websockets flag.

SignalR and the SignalR browser JavaScript client have been updated to support WebSockets over HTTP/2. Support is also coming to ClientWebSocket and YARP soon.

Kestrel performance improvements on high core machines

Kestrel uses ConcurrentQueue for many purposes. One purpose is scheduling I/O operations in Kestrel’s default Socket transport. Partitioning the ConcurrentQueue based on the associated socket reduces contention and increases throughput on machines with many CPU cores.

Recent profiling on new even higher core machines like the 80 core ARM64 Ampere Altra VMs recently made available on Azure showed a lot of contention in one of Kestrel’s other ConcurrentQueue instances, the PinnedMemoryPool which Kestrel uses to cache byte buffers.

In Preview 6, Kestrel’s memory pool is now partitioned the same way as its I/O queue leading to much lower contention and higher throughput on high core machines. We’re seeing an over 500% RPS improvement in the TechEmpower plaintext benchmark on the previously mentioned 80 core ARM64 VMs and a nearly 100% improvement on 48 Core AMD VMs in our HTTPS JSON benchmark.

Benchmark line graph with an upward "cliff" showing RPS double

Support for logging additional request headers in W3CLogger

You can now specify additional request headers to log when using the W3C logger by calling AdditionalRequestHeaders() on W3CLoggerOptions:

services.AddW3CLogging(logging =>
{
    logging.AdditionalRequestHeaders.Add("x-forwarded-for");
    logging.AdditionalRequestHeaders.Add("x-client-ssl-protocol");
});

Thanks to @dustinsoftware for contributing this feature!

Empty Blazor project templates

Blazor has two new project templates for starting from a blank slate. The new “Blazor Server App Empty” and “Blazor WebAssembly App Empty” project templates are just like their non-empty counterparts but without any extra demo code. These empty templates have only a very basic home page, and we’ve also removed Bootstrap so you can start with whatever CSS framework you prefer.

The new templates are available from within Visual Studio once you install the .NET 7 SDK:

Empty Blazor project templates

You can also use the empty Blazor project templates from the command-line:

dotnet new blazorserver-empty
dotnet new blazorwasm-empty

System.Security.Cryptography support on WebAssembly

.NET 6 supported the SHA family of hashing algorithms when running on WebAssembly. .NET 7 enables more cryptographic algorithms by taking advantage of SubtleCrypto when possible, and falling back to a .NET implementation when SubtleCrypto can’t be used. In .NET 7 Preview 6 the following algorithms are supported on WebAssembly:

  • SHA1
  • SHA256
  • SHA384
  • SHA512
  • HMACSHA1
  • HMACSHA256
  • HMACSHA384
  • HMACSHA512

Support for AES-CBC, PBKDF2, and HKDF algorithms are planned for a future .NET 7 update.

For more information, see dotnet/runtime#40074.

Blazor custom elements no longer experimental

The previously experimental Microsoft.AspNetCore.Components.CustomElements package for building standards based custom elements with Blazor is no longer experimental and is now part of the .NET 7 release.

To create a custom element using Blazor, register a Blazor root component as a custom element like this:

options.RootComponents.RegisterCustomElement<Counter>("my-counter");

You can then use this custom element with any other web framework you’d like:

<my-counter increment-amount="10"></my-counter>

For additional details, refer to the Blazor docs on building custom elements.

Experimental QuickGrid component for Blazor

QuickGrid is a new experimental component for Blazor for quickly and efficiently displaying data in tabular form. QuickGrid provides a simple and convenient data grid component for the most common needs as well as a reference architecture and performance baseline for anyone building Blazor data grid components.

To get started with QuickGrid:

  1. Add reference to the Microsoft.AspNetCore.Components.QuickGrid package.
    dotnet add package Microsoft.AspNetCore.Components.QuickGrid --prerelease
  2. Add the following Razor code to render a very simple grid.
    <QuickGrid Items="@people">
        <PropertyColumn Property="@(p => p.PersonId)" Sortable="true" />
        <PropertyColumn Property="@(p => p.Name)" Sortable="true" />
        <PropertyColumn Property="@(p => p.BirthDate)" Format="yyyy-MM-dd" Sortable="true" />
    </QuickGrid>
    
    @code {
        record Person(int PersonId, string Name, DateOnly BirthDate);
    
        IQueryable<Person> people = new[]
        {
            new Person(10895, "Jean Martin", new DateOnly(1985, 3, 16)),
            new Person(10944, "António Langa", new DateOnly(1991, 12, 1)),
            new Person(11203, "Julie Smith", new DateOnly(1958, 10, 10)),
            new Person(11205, "Nur Sari", new DateOnly(1922, 4, 27)),
            new Person(11898, "Jose Hernandez", new DateOnly(2011, 5, 3)),
            new Person(12130, "Kenji Sato", new DateOnly(2004, 1, 9)),
        }.AsQueryable();
    }

You can see examples of QuickGrid in action on the QuickGrid for Blazor demo site, which includes examples of:

QuickGrid is highly optimized and uses advanced techniques to achieve optimal rendering performance. The QuickGrid demo site is built using Blazor WebAssembly and is hosted on GitHub Pages. The site loads fast thanks to static prerendering using jsakamoto‘s BlazorWasmPrerendering.Build project.

It’s not a goal to add all the features to QuickGrid that full-blown commercial grids tend to have, for example hierarchical rows, drag-to-reorder columns, or Excel-like range selections. If you need those, continue using commercial grids or other open-source options.

QuickGrid is currently experimental, which means it’s not officially supported and isn’t committed to ship as part of .NET 7 or any future .NET release at this time. But, QuickGrid is open source and freely available to use. We hope you’ll give it a try and let us know what you think!

gRPC JSON transcoding multi-segment parameters

gRPC JSON transcoding is a new feature in .NET 7 for turning gRPC APIs into RESTful APIs.

New in Preview 6 is support for multi-segment parameters in gRPC JSON transcoding routes. This feature brings ASP.NET Core transcoding into parity with other transcoding solutions in the gRPC ecosystem.

It’s now possible to configure gRPC APIs to bind properties to multi-segment parameters. For example, /v1/{book=shelves/*/books/*} specifies a route with a multi-segment book parameter. It matches URL’s like /v1/shelves/user-name/books/cool-book and the book parameter has the value shelves/user-name/books/cool-book.

For more information about this routing syntax, see gRPC transcoding path syntax.

MapGroup support for more extension methods

Route groups were introduced in .NET 7 Preview 4 and allow defining groups of endpoints with a common route prefix and a common set of conventions. Conventions include extension methods like RequireAuthorization(), RequireCors() and their associated attributes. Conventions add metadata to an endpoint that other middleware (authorization, CORS, etc.) typically act on.

WithTags(), WithDescription(), ExcludeFromDescription() and WithSummary() previously only targeted RouteHandlerBuilder instead of the IEndpointConventionBuilder interface making them incompatible with the RouteGroupBuilder returned by MapGroup(). Starting in Preview 6, these extension methods now target IEndpointConventionBuildermaking them compatible with route groups.

Similarly, WithOpenApi() and AddFilter() targeted RouteHandlerBuilder instead of IEndpointConventionBuilder making them incompatible with route groups. Supporting these required rethinking how groups work internally to allow group conventions to both observe metadata about individual endpoints and still modify the metadata and even the final RequestDelegate generated for the endpoint. This was made possible through a change to EndpointDataSource, but the key takeaway is that you can now call WithOpenApi() and AddFilter() on route groups in Preview 6.

NOTE: AddFilter() has been renamed to AddRouteHandlerFilter() in Preview 6 and will be renamed again to AddEndpointFilter() starting in Preview 7.

var todos = app.MapGroup("/todos")
    .WithTags("todos", "some_other_tag")
    .WithOpenApi()
    .AddRouteHandlerFilter((endpointContext, next) =>
    {
        var logger = endpointContext.ApplicationServices.GetRequiredService<ILogger<Program>>();
        return invocationContext =>
        {
            logger.LogInformation($"Received request for: {invocationContext.HttpContext.Request.Path}");
            return next(invocationContext);
        };
    });

todos.MapGet("/{id}", GetTodo);
todos.MapGet("/", GetAllTodos).WithTags("get_all_todos");
todos.MapPost("/", CreateTodo).WithOpenApi(operation =>
{
    operation.Summary = "Create a todo.";
    return operation;
});

Give feedback

We hope you enjoy this preview release of ASP.NET Core in .NET 7. Let us know what you think about these new improvements by filing issues on GitHub.

Thanks for trying out ASP.NET Core!

21 comments

Comments are closed. Login to edit/delete your existing comments

  • Dawid Haładus 0

    If the websocket is now HTTP2 and can have compression, will it work with Brotli?
    Will Blazor Server Side also run on HTTP2?

    • Daniel RothMicrosoft employee 0

      Hi Dawid. Yes, Blazor Server should now work over HTTP/2 with the new WebSockets support.

    • Chris RMicrosoft employee 0

      HTTP/2 uses TLS in most scenarios and there are security concerns about mixing compression and TLS. You can opt into compression on a per-WebSocket basis, but that option is not currently available for SignalR which is used to communicate with Blazor.

  • Michal Hasnik 0

    Great stuff! Shouldn’t this article be published in ASP.NET devblog, not .NET one – I believe it worked that way until now.

    • Daniel RothMicrosoft employee 0

      Hi Machal. We consolidated all of the .NET related blogs together. You use the ASP.NET category to filter to the related web content.

  • Glaser, Thomas 0

    I really like the QuickGrid, that’s a great addition. Especially since Blazor is great for Line-of-Business apps, and those almost always have a table somewhere. 🙂

    • gambler4882@yahoo.com 0

      Agree 🙂 it would be realy nice to have a complete framework for intranet business apps, something like BlazorForms. QuickGrid looks really cool for RAD, quick and clear.

      • Ricardo Francisco 0

        Indeed. More controls like this grid would be amazing for RAD

  • hamid 0

    Hi Daniel Roth and thanks for improvements and efforts in Blazor.
    In my SPA application and on Server Side (Web Api), I need to exclude some properties from Model Binding.
    Currently it’s not possible to use BindNever or BindingBehavior(BindingBehavior.Never) Attributes in Blazor Webassembly Shared Project. which contains my EF Core Models.
    On the other hand the the Exclude property is Removed from BindAttribute in dotnet.
    So it’s not possible to prevent ASP.NET core Model Binder from Binding some properties for (POCO) Models defined in Shared Project.
    please add support for BindNever or Bind(Exclude) (or something like that) for Models that are defined in Blazor Shared Project.
    Thank you.

  • Markan 0

    “and we’ve also Bootstrap so you can start with whatever CSS framework you prefer”

    Typo.

    • Daniel RothMicrosoft employee 0

      Hi Markan. Thanks for catching that! Fixed.

  • Norm Johanson 0

    Is there a plan to use the IDistributedCache as the store for the output caching? My understanding is I would need to write a bridge type from the IOutputCache to the IDistributedCache. My guess is the EvictByTagsAsync method would be hard to graph on the IDistributedCache.

    • Sebastien RosMicrosoft employee 0

      The extensibility hook is there, and that’s one of the goals of this feature to be able to use different stores. I am not sure that using IDistributedCache directly is the most optimal approach, but at least it would allow to reuse any existing implementation without much work. In this case a simple way to store tags would be to store a serialized list of ids for each tag. Then when a tag is evicted this list can be loaded and discarded. I will try to come up with a sample for it.

  • Jay Nyendwa 0
    using System;
    using System.Collections.Generic;
    using System.Linq;
    using System.Text;
    using OpenGLTutorialSeries.Rendering.Display;
    using System.Threading.Tasks;
    
    namespace GLFW.GameLoop
    {
        abstract class Game
        {
            protected int InitalWindowWidth { get; set; }
            protected int InitalWindowHeight { get; set; }
            protected string InitialWindowTitle { get; set; }
    
            public void Run()
            {
                Initalize();
                DisplayManager.CreateWindow(InitalWindowWidth,InitalWindowHeight,InitialWindowTitle);
            }
            protected abstract void Initalize();
            protected abstract void LoadContent();
            protected abstract void Update();
            protected abstract void Render();
        }
    }
    

    Why Am I getting the error below on this code ” protected string InitialWindowTitle { get; set; }”
    Warning CS8767 Nullability of reference types in type of parameter ‘window’ of ‘bool NativeWindow.Equals(NativeWindow window)’ doesn’t match implicitly implemented member ‘bool IEquatable.Equals(NativeWindow? other)’ (possibly because of nullability attributes).

  • Naved Rasul 0

    SUGGESTION:
    Hi Daniel,
    Would it be appropriate (at the current state of ASP.NET Core) to move towards a ‘Hybrid Loading’ scheme for optimizing the loading time by initially loading the server-rendered pages (Blazor Server). In the meanwhile, loading the client-rendering code (Blazor WASM) in the background (at a lower priority; with respect to the network traffic). Finally, as the client-rendering code is completely loaded, switch to client-rendering.
    Thanks and Regards,

  • Rod Macdonald 0

    I’ve installed VS Preview 17.3 & the .NET 7 Preview 6 SDK but can’t see the empty Blazor templates – any idea what I need to do?

    Also, will there be an empty Blazor Hybrid template soon as I see this is not on the screenshot?

    Thanks a lot.

    • Daniel RothMicrosoft employee 0

      I’ve installed VS Preview 17.3 & the .NET 7 Preview 6 SDK but can’t see the empty Blazor templates – any idea what I need to do?

      Hmm…that is strange. The new empty Blazor templates should show up in VS after installing .NET 7 Preview 6. Could you please create a VS feedback ticket for this?

      Also, will there be an empty Blazor Hybrid template soon as I see this is not on the screenshot?

      It’s being discussed: https://github.com/dotnet/maui/issues/9126

      • Rod Macdonald 0

        Sorry I don’t have time to repro this for you (even if I could) but I think it was because I didn’t immediately reboot my PC when prompted. I did so a few hours later on install day having got some work out of the way but nothing was there. After restarting my machine a few days later and reading your helpful response, thought I’d take another peak, and boom, empty templates there and ran up perfectly. However, thought I’d take a look at what was installed as VS messaging advised Preview 6 was available(!) A check revealed machine had reverted to Preview 5, so I reinstalled Preview 6. Now I have the empty templates running under Preview 6 as they should be.

        Have given the thumbs up for your comments on GitHub for an empty Blazor Hybrid template – MS are doing all the right things!

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