The Performance Benefits of Final Classes

Sy Brand

The final specifier in C++ marks a class or virtual member function as one which cannot be derived from or overriden. For example, consider the following code: 

 struct base { 
  virtual void f() const = 0; 
struct derived final : base { 
  void f() const override {} 

If we attempt to write a new class which derives from `derived` then we get a compiler error: 

struct oh_no : derived { 
<source>(9): error C3246: 'oh_no': cannot inherit from 'derived' as it has been declared as 'final'
<source>(5): note: see declaration of 'derived'

The final specifier is useful for expressing to readers of the code that a class is not to be derived from and having the compiler enforce this, but it can also improve performance through aiding devirtualization. 


Virtual functions require an indirect call through the vtable, which is more expensive than a direct call due to interactions with branch prediction and the instruction cache, and also the prevention of further optimizations which could be carried out after inlining the call.  

Devirtualization is a compiler optimization which attempts to resolve virtual function calls at compile time rather than runtime. This eliminates all the issues noted above, so it can greatly improve the performance of code which uses many virtual calls1. 

Here is a minimal example of devirtualization: 

struct dog { 
  virtual void speak() { 
    std::cout << "woof"; 

int main() { 
  dog fido; 

In this code, even though dog::speak is a virtual function, the only possible result of main is to output ”woof”. If you look at the compiler output you’ll see that MSVC, GCC, and Clang all recognize this and inline the definition of dog::speak into main, avoiding the need for an indirect call. 

The Benefit of final 

The final specifier can provide the compiler with more opportunities for devirtualization by helping it identify more cases where virtual calls can be resolved at compile time. Coming back to our original example: 

struct base { 
  virtual void f() const = 0; 
struct derived final : base { 
  void f() const override {} 

Consider this function: 

void call_f(derived const& d) { 

Since derived is marked final the compiler knows it cannot be derived from further. This means that the call to f will only ever call derived::f, so the call can be resolved at compile time. As proof, here is the compiler output for call_f on MSVC when derived or derived::f are marked as final: 

ret 0 

You can see that the derived::f has been inlined into the definition of call_f. If we were to take the final specifier off the definition, the assembly would look like this: 

mov rax, QWORD PTR [rcx] 
rex_jmp QWORD PTR [rax]

This code loads the vtable from d, then makes an indirect call to derived::f through the function pointer stored at the relevant location. 

The cost of a pointer load and jump may not look like much since it’s just two instructions, but remember that this may involve a branch misprediction and/or instruction cache miss, which would result in a pipeline stall. Furthermore, if there was more code in call_f or functions which call it, the compiler may be able to optimize it much more aggressively given the full visibility of the code which will be executed and the additional analysis which this enables. 


Marking your classes or member functions as final can improve the performance of your code by giving the compiler more opportunities to resolve virtual calls at compile time. 

Consider if there are any places in your codebases which would benefit from this and measure the impact!  




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  • Yehezkel Bernat 0

    Nice article.
    Just please fix the dog example. Virtual functions aren’t relevant anyway when the call is done by an actual object. You have to use a pointer or reference for virtual call to be considered.

  • Andy Webber 0

    Recently we discussed using final to discourage people from deriving from a type that was never intended to be a base class. One of our colleagues discouraged that saying that adding final to a class with no virtual functions would have the effect of creating a vtable. Do you know if this is really the case?

    For instance, imagine adding final to std::string as an indication that users should not derive from it. Yes, I know that would be a breaking change and so wouldn’t happen anyway, but is the vtable introduction a consideration?

    • Me Gusta 0

      First, and most importantly, this post is talking about benefits for classes that already have virtual functions. If you are avoiding the use of virtual functions in your class hierarchy then the use of final will not introduce any of these benefits because the compiler will be doing direct function calls anyway.
      But anyway, when doing side by side tests, I don’t see any class size differences at all. Two classes/structs with the exact same definition (no virtual functions at all) with only the final as the difference will have the same size.
      Maybe there is confusion here based upon where the final is being used.
      As an example:
      class myclass final{};
      This is telling the compiler that the entire class is final and cannot be derived from. This doesn’t introduce a vtable and so it will only have a vtable if the class contains virtual functions.
      As another example:
      class myclass2 : public base_class //no final
      virtual void my_virtual_function() final;
      This is overriding a function and marking the function as final. This means that if this class is derived from then the compiler will not allow any derived classes to override this function. But notice the important thing, the function must have already been declared virtual, either in the base class or as part of the declaration which also includes final.
      This is probably what your colleague was talking about. When you use it on a member function, it can only be added to a function declared virtual. What this means is that if you have a class/struct like the following:
      struct mystruct
      void my_function_that_must_not_be_overriden();
      There is no way to let someone derive from the class but at the same time stop them overriding the function without making the function virtual. So yes, it has the effect of creating a vtable in this case because you would have to make the function virtual to mark it as final.
      But anyway, adding final to std::basic_string would not have any affects on the class size, nor would a vtable be added to the VC implementation which currently doesn’t define any virtual members in std::basic_string. This is because the only place you could add final to std::basic_string is the class key/identifier portion of the class. Adding it here doesn’t require any virtual functions in the class so there is no net effect of adding a vtable.

      • Andy Webber 0

        Thanks. That makes sense. I hadn’t tried it myself yet, but it went against my intuition that marking the class itself final would necessitate a vtable. So I think it’s correct to say that final itself has no bearing on vtable construction. In fact, 12.3 in the C++17 standard simply says that deriving from a base class that is marked as final is ill-formed.

        In the case of member functions, I agree that final implies virtual which does necessitate the vtable.

        • Tanveer Badar 0

          Also consider what happens when you derive from a type which does not have a virtual destructor. You will not be able to provide proper RAII for any derived types when using dynamically allocated objects. No derived destructor will run for such objects if they were ever to be upcast to base pointer/reference and then went out of scope.

          The absence of a virtual destructor itself is a big indicator that the type is not meant to be derived from, regardless of whether the author marks it as final or not.

  • Andrey Koshelev 0

    Is it sufficient to mark class as final to get potential benefits of devirtualization, or should be every virtual function inside this class marked as final as well?

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