Porting desktop apps to .NET Core

Olia Gavrysh

Olia

Since I’ve been working with the community on porting desktop applications from .NET Framework to .NET Core, I’ve noticed that there are two camps of folks: some want a very simple and short list of instructions to get their apps ported to .NET Core while others prefer a more principled approach with more background information. Instead of writing up a “Swiss Army knife”-document, we are going to publish two blog posts, one for each camp:

  • This post is the simple case. It’s focused on simple instructions and smaller applications and is the easiest way to move your app to .NET Core.
  • We will publish another post for more complicated cases. This post will focus more on non-trivial applications, such WPF application with dependencies on WCF and third-party UI packages.

If you prefer watching videos instead of reading, here is the video where I do everything that is described below.

Step 0 – Prerequisites

To port your desktop apps to Core, you’ll need .NET Core 3 and Visual Studio 2019.

Step 1 – Run portability analyzer

Before porting, you should check how compatible your application is with .NET Core. To do so, download and run .NET Portability Analyzer.

  • On the first tab, Portability Summary, if you have only 100% in .NET Core column (everything is highlighted in green), your code is fully compatible, go to Step 2.
  • If you have values of less than 100%, first look at all assemblies that aren’t part of you application. For those, check if their authors are providing versions for .NET Core or .NET Standard.
  • Now look at the other part of assemblies that are coming from your code. If you don’t have any of your assemblies listed in the portability report, go to Step 2. If you do, open Details tab, filter the table by clicking on the column Assembly and only focus on the ones that are from your application. Walk the list and refactor your code to stop using the API or replace the API usage with alternatives from .NET Core.

Step 2 – Migrate to SDK-style .csproj

In Solution Explorer right-click on your project (not on the solution!). Do you see Edit Project File? If you do, you already use the SDK-style project file, so you should move to Step 3. If not, do the following.

  • Check in the Solution Explorer if your project contains a packages.config file. If you don’t, no action is needed, if you do, right-click on packages.config and choose Migrate packages.config to PackageReference. Then click OK.
  • Open your project file by right-clicking on the project and choose Unload Project. Then right-click on the project and choose Edit <your project name>.csproj.
  • Copy the content of the project file somewhere, for example into Notepad, so you can search in it later.
  • Delete everything from your project file opened in Visual Studio (I know it sounds aggressive 😊, but we will add only needed content from the copy we’ve just made in a few steps). Instead of the text you’ve just deleted, paste the following code.For a WinForms application:

    For a WPF application:
  • In Notepad, search for PackageReference. If you did not find anything, move on. If you found PackageReference, copy the entire <ItemGroup> that contains PackageReference in your project file, opened in Visual Studio, right below the lines you’ve pasted in the step above. Do it for each occurrence of the PackageReference you have found. The copied block should look like this.
  • Now do the same as above for ProjectReference. If you did not find anything, move on. If you found any ProjectReference items, they would look like this.
  • You can remove lines with <Project> and <Name> properties, since they are not needed in the new project file style. So for each ProjectReference that you have found (if any), copy only ItemGroup and ProjectReference like this.
  • Save everything. Close the .csproj file in Visual Studio. Right-click on your project in the Solution Explorer and select Reload Project. Rebuild and make sure there are no errors.

Great news, you just updated your project file to the new SDK-style! The project is still targeting .NET Framework, but now you’ll be able to retarget it to .NET Core.

Step 3 – Retarget to .NET Core

Open your project file by double-clicking on your project in Solution Explorer. Find the property <TargetFramework> and change the value to netcoreapp3.0. Now your project file should look like this:

Build and run your project. Congratulations, you ported to .NET Core 3!

Fixing errors

If you get errors like

or

and your portability report was green, it should be easy to fix by adding a NuGet package with the corresponding library. If you cannot find the NuGet package with the library that is missing, try referencing Microsoft.Windows.Compatibility. This package adds ~21K .NET APIs from .NET Framework.

Working with designers

Even though it is possible to edit the user interface of your application via code, developers usually prefer using the visual designers. With .NET Core we had to rearchitect the way the designers work with .NET Core projects:

  • The WPF designer is already in preview and we are working on adding more functionality to it.
  • The WinForms designer for .NET Core will be available later, and meanwhile there you can use the .NET Framework WinForms designer as a workaround.

Here is how you can use the .NET Framework WinForms designer:

  1. Copy your .csproj file (let’s say you have MyProject.csproj), give it a different name, for example MyProject.NetFramework.csproj and put it next to your existing project file.
  2. Make sure your project is closed in Visual Studio, open the new project MyProject.NetFramework.csproj.
    In Solution Explorer right-click on your project and select Properties. In the Application tab (should be open by default) set Assembly name and Default namespace to the same values as in your initial project (remove “.NetFramework” from the names).
    Save this solution next to your existing solution.
  3. Open the new project file and change the <TargetFramework> to net472.
  4. Now when you need to use the WinForms designer, load your project with the MyProject.NetFramework.csproj project file and you’ll get the full experience of .NET Framework designer. When you are done with the designer, close and open your project with the .NET Core project file.
  5. This is just a workaround until the WinForms designer for .NET Core is ready.

Why port to .NET Core

Check out the video where Scott Hunter and I are talking about all the new things coming with .NET Core 3 Porting to .NET Core 3.0.

Olia Gavrysh
Olia Gavrysh

Program Manager, .NET

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31 Comments
Bradley Uffner
Bradley Uffner 2019-05-28 09:52:59
Thank you SOOOOO much for providing the content in both Text and video! It is so frustrating that many sites think everyone has time to watch a 20 minute video for something that could be read in under 5 (along with it being indexed and searchable).
Kowalski Prime
Kowalski Prime 2019-05-28 12:54:04
A WPF designer for VS Code would be amazing!
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anonymous 2019-05-28 14:37:28

This comment has been deleted.

王宏亮
宏亮 王 2019-05-28 14:44:43
Please speed up winforms designer development!
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thomas woelfer 2019-05-29 02:03:47
>> The WinForms designer for .NET Core will be available later Do you have a timeframe for that? The "workaround" isn't practical for a real-world application. My current solution has 100+ projects and 500+ forms... Also: What about managed(native) c++ usage? Is this supported already?
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Catalin Pop 2019-05-29 02:36:20
When Visual Studio is migrated to .Net core then we will know .Net core was "dog fed" enough to make it a stable solid platform. Just like when visual studio moved to WPF, we knew WPF has become a solid state of the art platform. Therefore dear Microsoft, please start moving Visual Studio to .Net Core and WPF on .Net core, then we knoe it's ready for the most demanding jobs.
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Ion Sorin Torjo 2019-05-29 02:38:31
Hi, Any win2d + xaml islands examples that work out of the box? Thanks! (what I mean is: I want to have a WPF app use xaml islands and use win2d through that).
Daniel Wilianto
Daniel Wilianto 2019-05-29 04:41:27
Nah... I will wait for .NET 5. I will probably only need to change a few lines of code when it happens.
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Paul Cohen 2019-05-29 13:16:03
I don’t believe these instructions work for VB WinForm applications. There is more going on to compile the resources.
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Daniel Smith 2019-05-29 16:41:14
This is awesome, can't wait to port to .NET Core 3.0.  Any news on the ReportViewer control?  Are the SSRS team working on this?
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Karel Král 2019-05-30 06:50:32
I do not understand why migrating .csproj must be done in Notepad by my hands? Why is not MS creating some tool to migrate .csproj from old format to a new format? Why I cannot upgrade .csproj by right click directly in Visual Studio?  We have solutions with 200+ projects. 
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Thad House 2019-05-30 14:00:45
Will there be any guide on how to update programs that have a `COMReference` block? I'm trying to see if I can shim it in with another library, but it would be nice to have this supported by default. Specifically, I need access to the `IWshRuntimeLibrary` COM API's to create desktop shortcuts.
Yordan
Yordan . 2019-05-31 01:12:53
Porting from the good to the junk ?! You are joking right ?!Look - we are not writting 2 rows of code with an absurdly low capabilities. REAL Windows developers is keep looking for more and more power going cross NET-to-NATIVE ( optimized down to assembler level code )..NET CORE on it's current state is something which I will never, ever touch in order to make anithing for desktop if it keeps to exists in this state.PLEASE DO NOT REPEAT THE MISTAKE OF WINDOWS RT !!!A yeah. Windows 10 is a complete junk in every aspect. Double cross it as a real platform. Deca cross it as the future.It is a completely no-go if peples wanna do complex things with their computers. And NO - we are not looking for 1/2 of the screen big button to click it with our legs. The quality and the point of the calculations and the point of design and elegancy is lost with Windows 8 UI.One platform capable of everything is lost with Windows 10. Please stop making the worse things hapens. Revert back to meanful UI, revert back to expanded capabilities available in Windows 7.
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Stefan Over 2019-05-31 06:09:38
Can we distribute the WPF applications ported to .NET Core 3.0 using ClickOnce?Could you please go into more details about deploying a .NET Core WPF application, with automatic updates? Thanks :)
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Felipe Pessoto 2019-05-31 21:44:46

I don't know if it is happening just with me, but when opening a .NET Core 3.0 project I receive this error:

---------------------------
Microsoft Visual Studio
---------------------------
The project file cannot be opened by the project system, because it is missing some critical imports or the referenced SDK cannot be found.

Detailed Information:
C:\Program Files\dotnet\sdk\2.2.300\Sdks\Microsoft.NET.Sdk.WindowsDesktop\Sdk not found. Check that a recent enough .NET Core SDK is installed and/or increase the version specified in global.json.

---------------------------
OK
---------------------------

It worked after I created a global.json file to force the targe to the .NET Core 3.0:

{
"sdk": {
"version": "3.0.100-preview5-011568"
}
}

But Visual Studio still gives me a warning with a inexistent option, to enable .NET Core Preview in VS:

Please enable using preview .NET Core SDKs in the Visual Studio Options to open.NET Core 3.0 projects

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Frank Peiffer 2019-06-03 03:57:22
Will there be any migration path for mixed language projects such as C#/VB.NET applications calling unmanaged C++ class libraries through C++/CLI wrapper DLLs (i.e. where PInvoke is simply not enough)?